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Lecture 9

FRHD 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Cross-Dressing, Cisgender, Gender Role

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020
Ruth Neustifter

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Week 09— Gender and Sexuality
Dierence between Sex and Gender
- sex
biological characteristics of males and females
- gender
social attitudes and behaviours of males and females
Understanding Gender: Terminology
- role
behaviour associated with someone who holds a particular status
- gender role
behaviour expected of female or male in a particular culture
- sex role
behaviour define by biological constraints
Understanding Gender: Terminology
- cross dresser and transvestites
a member of one gender dresses up in clothes and other gender specific attire to appear to be a
member of the other gender
- transsexuals and transgender persons
a person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity of self-concept of the other gender
and may undergo processes and/or procedures to change that sex or gender
- gender identity
psychological sense of being male or female
- cisgender
describes people who identify as the gender they were assigned at brith
why use this term over non-transgender?
implies that cisgender people are the default and that being trans is abnormal
- intersexed (Hermaphrodite is NOT an ok word)
a person who has intersexed sexual organs
rare— between 1 in 700 and 1 in 5000 live births

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chromosomal abnormalities
errors of metabolism aecting reproductive hormones
exposure to exogenous steroids during fetal development
How Abstract is Gender?
- the Reimer Case
1965 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, two twin boys were born
after accidental surgical damage, parents were concerned
Dr. John Money’s perspective:
gender neutrality— gender identity develops as a results of social learning
with early intervention gender identity can be changed
felt “Brenda” would achieve successful sexual maturation as a female instead
bonus— the identical twin factor made this a perfect research case
Dr. Milton Diamond’s perspective
heard about this case years later and sought out David in 1997
pointed out that the methods for treating intersexed people were faulty
recommends no surgical assignment on infants
consider intersexed a dierent form of sexual development, not a disorder
Why do Gender Roles Dier?
- sociobiology
social behaviour results from biological dierences
testosterone and estrogen
- learning theories
we learn behaviours from our interactions with the environment
reinforcement: rewards and punishments
modelling and imitation
Understanding Gender: Terminology
- socialization
process by which people learn the characteristics of their group
Gender Roles and Kids
- preschool
stereotyped beliefs about occupations and activities that are not flexible
e.g. girls can’t be police ocers
- middle childhood
understand stereotypes and gender stereotype flexibility
overlap in characteristics of males and females
more flexible, more likely to not believe in stereotypes
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