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Lecture 21

FRHD 2040 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Language Acquisition Device, Phonics, Phonemic Awareness

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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FRHD 2040 WEEK 7
What is language?
Definition a system of communication used by humans which is either produced orally or by
sign and can be extended to its written form
Characteristics of language
o Rules-governed (i.e. order of words)
o Arbitrary
o Changes over time new English words in 2015 awesomesauce, manspreading, brain
fat, ie olok, hag et.
Sequence of language development
o Crying first form of communication cooing and babbling start (3-4 months)
o End of first year first words, often dozen words by 1st birthday
o Big expansion 50+ words by end of second year
o Holophrastic speech, simple sentences (1 or 2 words), expressive jargon
o New words almost daily, more complex sentences
o Refining understanding of rules of communication
Primary grades
o Learning nuances of linguistics humour, multiple meanings, intonation
o Progresses to mature speech around 8-10 years
Some children use idiomorphs
o Something kids come up with by themselves like made up names (i.e. soo-soo)
o Some parents use too many better to use actual word
o Used a lot around body parts JUST SAY PENIS
How do children learn language?
Children learn even without formal teaching
Brewer advocates that learning of languages is developmental rather than an acquisition
o Part of internal cognitive structure, learning language is a primary goal of early
childhood programs
Theoretical perspectives
o Behaviourist (skinner) imitation, rewards operant conditioning
o Linguistic (Chomsky) based on Maturationist principle, takes time to develop through
exposure, language acquisition device; innate ability to learn language,
o Constructivist (Piaget and Vygotsky) combination of behaviourist and linguistic,
support for social interaction
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FRHD 2040 WEEK 7
Language systems****
Phonology system of words
o Languages have different phonologies children lose what is not needed
Morphology meaning of sounds
o Morpheme smallest meaning of sound that means something
Syntax rules for combining words
o Making phrases and sentences (i.e. ed ig dog is og ig ed dog is ight)
Semantics meanings associated with words
Pragmatics use of language to express intention
o Based on situational demands
o Adapt language to different social situations (i.e. talking with friends vs. presentation)
o Example kid ups ith fieds ut doest ealize its ot appopiate to up i fot
of proper British grandparents
Communicative competence ability to use language appropriately
o Something they can communicate
Linguistic competence what they know (expressive vs. receptive)
o Something they understand
Activities to facilitate language development
Most language learning occurs informally
Be responsive, ask open-ended questions and model correct form
Encourage growth through
o Expansions repeating in more complex form
o Extensions elaborating and expanding
o Repetition epeatig pat of hilds stateet
o Parallel talk desiig hilds atios
o Self-talk narrating own actions
o Vertical structuring responding with question
o Fill-in structured sentence that child finishes
What is literacy?
Definition the ailit to ead ad ite ell eough to sole oes poles, eet oes
needs, learn new information and find pleasure in the written word
Emergent literacy
o Children being learning, reading and writing in infancy
o Provide print-rich environment and guidance
Help children to grow into readers and writers What is literacy?
The ailit to ead ad ite ell eough to sole oes poles, eet oes eeds, lea e
information and find pleasure in the written word
find more resources at
find more resources at
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