FRHD 2110 Lecture Notes - Decibel, Inner Ear, Ossicles

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Chapter 10-Learners who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (pg 260-292)
Facts
Most people who are deaf have some residual hearing(amount of hearing remaining after
hearing loss)-different in all cases
One cannot predict the severity of an exceptionality, but generally people who are deaf
possess more difficulty than individuals who are blind because they have lost the ability
to understand and speak oral language
When reading lips, people who are deaf also take advantage of reading visual cues (facial
expression) this is call speech-reading
ASL is a true language and possess its own set of grammatical rules
People in the Deaf community see separate placements as a way of fostering the Deaf
culture
-people who are deaf or hard of hearing may experience isolation due to communication
problems
Decibels-units of loudness of sounds, 0 dB is people with normal hearing can just detect
sound
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
A deaf person whose hearing abilities makes it impossible to process linguistic
information through audition and this is with or without a hearing aid
A person who is hard of hearing (with use of a hearing aid) has sufficient residual hearing
to enable the process of linguistic information through audition
Congenitally deaf-present at birth, can be caused by genetic factors that may have
occurred during fetal development or injuries during birth
Adventitiously deaf- occurs through illness or accident but was born with normal hearing
Prelingual deafness- deafness that occurs usually at birth before language development
Postingual deafness-deafness occurring after the development of speech and language
Prevalence
-accuracy varies due to the definition, population studied and the accuracy of testing
-approx 13 percent of children aged 0-14 have some form of hearing loss
Anatomy of the Ear
Outer ear
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Tympanic membrane-the boundary between the middle and outer ear, the sound gathered
vibrates here
Auricle-visible part of the ear, this collects the sounds and funnels the sounds to the
eardrum via the external auditory canal
Middle ear
Ossicles-three tiny bones that make it possible to transfer sound waves to the eardrum to
the oval window which connects the middle ear to the inner ear
malleus-hammer shaped bone
incus-anvil shaped bone part of the chain
stapes-stirrup shaped bone part of the ossicular chain
oval window-the link between the middle and inner ear
Inner ear
vestibular mechanism-upper portion of the inner ear and consists of 3 soft canals filled
with fluid and sensitive to certain movements
cochlea-snail shaped organ that lies below the vestibular mechanism, this part of the ear
converts the sounds coming from the middle ear into electrical signals that are
transmitted to the brain
Measurement of Hearing Ability
audiologist-individual trained in audiology
otoacoustic emissions-low intensity sounds produced by the cochlea in response to
auditory stimulation, used to detect problems in very young children
pure-tone audiometry-different intensities and frequencies are tested to determine a
person’s hearing loss
hertz (Hz)-a unit of measurement of the frequency of sound
audiometric zero-lowest level at which people with normal hearing can hear
speech audiometry-tests a person’s detection and understanding of speech rather than
pure tones to determine hearing loss
speech reception threshold(SRT)-decibel level in which a person can hear sounds
play audiometry-gamelike to test hearing of the young and hard to test children teaches
child how to respond to sounds
tympanometry-measuring the middle ear in response to pressure and sound
evoked response audiometry-electoencephalograph used to measure the changes in brain
wave activity in response to sound
Causes
conductive hearing impairments-mild malfunction in the middle ear
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sensorineural hearing impairment-a severe hearing impairment from a malfunction of
the inner ear
mixed hearing impairment-a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing
impairments
external otitis-an ear infection on the external auditory canal (aka swimmers ear)
connexion-26 gene-a gene mutation that causes deafness and it is the leading cause of
cognitive deafness in children
congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV)-most frequently occurring infection in newborns-
many exceptionalities and mainly hearing impairment
Degrees of Hearing Impairment
Hearing Level
Descriptor
Impact on Communication
-10 to 15 dB
Normal
No impact
16 to 25 dB
Slight
Loud environments, faint
speech is hard to detect
26 to 40 dB
Mild
Classroom discussions are
hard to follow
41 to 55 dB
Moderate
Only hear at close distance
56 to 70 dB
Moderate-Severe
Can only hear loud
conversational speech
71 to 90 dB
Severe
Cannot hear loud
conversational speech or
recognize words
90+ dB
Profound
Vision is primary used for
communication and loud
speech is not heard
sign language-a true language with its own grammar
-sign language like all spoken languages is hard to pick up if in a foreign location
Ex. People in France use French sign language where people in the USA use ASL
-have the same developmental milestones in language, same as spoken language
baby signs-help hearing parents & their infants communicate before spoken language
develops
-show extreme problems with academic achievement
cochlear implantation- surgical procedure that allows deaf people to hear some
environmental sounds, the sound is picked up by a microphone which transmits a signal
from the external coil to the internal coil that is implanted in the bone behind the ear,
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Document Summary

Chapter 10-learners who are deaf or hard of hearing (pg 260-292) Most people who are deaf have some residual hearing(amount of hearing remaining after hearing loss)-different in all cases. One cannot predict the severity of an exceptionality, but generally people who are deaf possess more difficulty than individuals who are blind because they have lost the ability to understand and speak oral language. When reading lips, people who are deaf also take advantage of reading visual cues (facial expression) this is call speech-reading. Asl is a true language and possess its own set of grammatical rules. People in the deaf community see separate placements as a way of fostering the deaf culture. People who are deaf or hard of hearing may experience isolation due to communication problems. Decibels-units of loudness of sounds, 0 db is people with normal hearing can just detect sound.

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