FRHD 2270 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Fundamental Theorem Of Arithmetic, Speech-Language Pathology, Autosome

9 views5 pages
Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 2270
Professor
Week Three Genetics, Growth and Health
Key Concepts
The human body has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs); these are tiny structures that contain genetic material; each pair are
called alleles and each pair can be different.
Autosomes: first 22 pairs; all same size; 23rd pair determines sex of the child (XX = girl, XY = boy); same homosias,
different hedrosias.
Genotype: complete set of gene’s; persons heredity.
Phenotype: genetic instructions with environmental influences; tan = manipulated phenotype by environment;
individuals physical, behavioural and psychological features.
Dominant genes: expressed, chemical instructions are followed; can be seen in both homo and heterozygous.
Recessive genes: if paired with dominant gene, will not be expressed; only expressed when alleles are homozygous(the
same)
Monozygotic Twins: identical twins; single fertilized egg that splits in two; share 100% of genes.
Dizygotic: fraternal twins; two separate fertilized eggs by two separate sperm; share 50% of genes.
Atypical Development
Genetic Disorders
Inherited: recessive/dominant/or sex chromosome; rare.
Abnormal number of chromosomes: extra, missing or damaged; more common; ex. downsyndrome, XXX syndrome.
DOWNSYNDROME
Causes: abnormal number of chromosomes; extra 21st chromosome (autosome); carried by mother’s; 20 year old
mother 1 in 1000, 40 year old mother 1 in 50; causes cognitive deficits and developmental delays.
Physical features: head, neck and nose are smaller; almond shaped eyes; hearing, vision and other medical issues.
Effects:
Learning mild to moderate intellectual impairment; delays in speech; capable of developing various skills (slower pace
and may be different than other children when it comes to feeding, and dressing).
Supporting Children with DS
Early intervention: speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercise for gross and fine motor skills will allow them to
live productive lives well into adulthood; benefits from special education and attention at school; many children can
integrate into regular classes at school.
GENES:
1) Genes depend on environment
- Reaction range: genotype produces a range of phenotypes in reaction to the environment where
development occurs; ex. children with same intelligence but different environments, one will grow
to be smart due to stimulating environment.
2) Heredity and Environment
- Metaphor: clay and sculpture
- Genes are expressed or turned on during development; ex. genes initiate grey hair.
- Environment can trigger genetic expression; experiences can determine how and when genes are
turned on; ex. stress can induce grey hair.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3) Genes can influence environment child is exposed to
- Genotype can lead people to respond to child in a certain way; ex. bright and outgoing child vs shy
not so bright child.
- Niche picking: deliberately seeking out environment that fits ones heredity; develops as we become
independent; ex. social child seeks out social situations.
4) Environments make children within a family different
- Non shared environmental influences; environment affects each child in a unique way; may explain
differences in siblings; ex. parents more affectionate with one child; high grade standard with one
child, not the other; also consider environments outside of parents.
GROWTH
Cephalocaudal: head to tail; motor control of head
comes before control of arms and legs; birth to 1st year:
head and trunk grow faster then legs; 1st year
adolescence: legs grow most rapidly, accounting for
60% of height growth.
Proximodistal: center outward; head, trunk and arm
control comes before coordination of hands and fingers;
prenatal: chest and internal organs -> arms and legs ->
hands and feet; infancy-childhood; infancy-childhood:
arms and legs grow faster than hands and feet.
Secular growth trend: changes in physical development from one generation to the next; ex. children are taller than
previous generation; may result from better health and nutrition.
Sleep
- 80% of growth hormone is secreted while children sleep; secreted from pituitary gland and triggers
muscle and bone growth
- Sleep less as we get older:
o 12 hours at age 3
o 10 hours at age 7
o 8 hours at age 12
- Lack of or inconsistent sleep affects cognitive processes and adjustment in school (pay less attention
in class, aggression, less sleep high BMI); use consistent bedtime routine to “wind down”.
Nutrition
- First two years of life are crucial because brain and body are growing rapidly; 25% of caloric intake is
needed for organ and body growth
- Preschoolers grow slower than infants and toddlers; need to eat less and watch intake, 1500-1700c
- School age children need to eat more to support growth and activities; 2400 calories per day
Challenges:
1) Eating a balanced diet: preschoolers like junkfood
2) Picky eaters: preschool years; solutions allow and encourage choices in food but don’t force children to eat
them; never use food as rewards.
Malnutrition
- 1 in 3 children under 5 years (globally); small for their age, shorter; lower intelligence; motor and
attention impairments
- Causes in Canada: poverty and homelessness; 1 in 10 children live in poverty; 37% of food bank
users were children in 2008
- Short term hunger: breakfast provides 1/4th of daily calories; without children have difficulty paying
attention and remembering at school.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

The human body has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs); these are tiny structures that contain genetic material; each pair are called alleles and each pair can be different. Autosomes: first 22 pairs; all same size; 23rd pair determines sex of the child (xx = girl, xy = boy); same homosias, different hedrosias. Phenotype: genetic instructions with environmental influences; tan = manipulated phenotype by environment; individuals physical, behavioural and psychological features. Dominant genes: expressed, chemical instructions are followed; can be seen in both homo and heterozygous. Recessive genes: if paired with dominant gene, will not be expressed; only expressed when alleles are homozygous(the same) Monozygotic twins: identical twins; single fertilized egg that splits in two; share 100% of genes. Dizygotic: fraternal twins; two separate fertilized eggs by two separate sperm; share 50% of genes. Abnormal number of chromosomes: extra, missing or damaged; more common; ex. downsyndrome, xxx syndrome.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.