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Lecture 5

FRHD 3040 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Edward Burnett Tylor, Cultural Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3040
David Green

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FRHD3040 lecture 5 cultural perspective on parenting
Defining culture - what culture is not
Society - a group of people with common territory, interaction and culture
Nationality/citizenship - relationship of a person to a particular state
Ethnicity - the group to which people belong, and or perceived to belong based on certain shared
Race - the group that a person belongs to based on a mix of physical features
Defining culture
Polysemous (about the meaning of words, of many senses - when a word pr phrase has several
meanings) term
Historical background : Stems from "cultivation" (producing or developing)
France in the 18th century single term culture (sense of training or refinement of the mind or
Late 19th century anthropologists Edward Tylor referred to culture as a complex whole
(knowledge, beliefs and any other capacities)
In 1952 - 160 definitions
Culture across disciplines - cultural psychology
"cultural psychology is a study of the mental life of individuals in relation to the symbolic and
behavioural inheritances of a particular cultural communities"
There is always both types of inheritances
o Symbolic
o Behavioural
Some group of people who belong together, shared features
Semiotic (sign) mediation, part of the system of organized psychological functions (inter and
Types of cultures: personal
Cultural developmental psychology as process focused
Personal culture
o Internal subjective phenomena (intra-mental processes)
o Immediate (person centered) externalizations
o Personal culture is publicly visible
o Created meanings projected to the world through personal arrangements of things
personally important (symbolic domains and interpersonal interaction rituals)
Types of cultures: collective
Collective culture - externalizations of personal meaning systems of always limited groups of
Collective culture - utilized in construction of personal culture
Collective culture as dynamic process
o Communicative interchanges between persons
o Variety of parallel forms of collective culture
Challenge to dichotomous cultural systems
Child socialization as individualistic in the west and collectivistic in the east
Survey data 1989 - 2010
More endorsement of independence in east than west
Less endorsement of obedience in east than west
Obedience not a popular socialization goal
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More endorsement of determination/perseverance, hard work, and responsibility by parents in
Influences on cultural understanding
Perception language
Use of language
Understanding of concept based on cultural meaning
Cultural application of concepts
Culture: impacts on parental beliefs and childrearing practices
Influences on parent-child interactions
Culture as source of parental beliefs
Child development as product of societal culture or collective culture
People and cultural values
Construal of the self
Independent construal
Individual separate from others and social context
Describe persona according to internal attributes (psychological attributes or generalized traits
Internal attributes remain fairly stable across relations or situations with others
More focus on the expression of these internal attributes
Stress emotions that are more ego focused (anger, pride)
Need to be experts in the experience and expression of these emotions
Concerned with consistency between feeling and action
Individually oriented motive to achieve (desire to achieve some internalized standards of
Interdependent construal
Person in relation to others
Describe person according to specific behaviour related to specific context
Context determined by situation, social role, or rules of interactions
Focus on developing a highly differentiated and sensitive knowledge of others and rules of
Report emotions that are more other-focused (sympathy, shame)
Experts in managing the experience and proper expression of these emotions
Concerned with restraining feelings and emotions to avoid negative expression
Stress a socially oriented motive to achieve (desire to meet expectations of others)
Culture: hierarchy of parenting tasks
Similarity of parenting tasks based on specific priority
Expansion of LeVine's (1977) universal goals of parenting (third category)
Salience of parenting tasks may reflect issues within the families
Purpose and methods of accomplishing tasks may be different
European American mothers
Providing consistency, love making the child feel safe
Building the child's self esteem or self confidence
Creating an environment for learning and exploring
Instilling values (respecting others, value of money and work)
Processing feeling with the child (getting in touch with feelings, labelling and articulating them to
Stressing independence and individualism
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