Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
U of G (30,000)
FRHD (1,000)
FRHD 3150 (100)
Lecture 1

FRHD 3150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Tantrum, Reinforcement, Stimulus Control

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 10 pages of the document.
FR(D  Midterm  Review
-Punishment: Eliminating Behavior
--Positive Punishment: Aversive Stimuli
--Negative Punishment: Removing a reward
* A punishment is for decreasing a behavior
-Positive reinforcement=Reward
-Negative Reinforcement= Removing aversive
-Positive Punishment= Aversive stimuli
-Negative Punishment=Removing Reward
*Reinforcements increase the likelihood that a behavior will increase
*Punishments increase the likelihood that a behavior will decrease
*Negative is the absence of a stimuli
*Positive is the presence of a stimuli
Time Outs:  types:
1. Exclusionary Time out: Move individual into context with very little to no
reinforcement for a short period of time
2. Non Exclusionary Time out: )ndividual is only allowed to take part in some of the
reinforcing stimuli available in their environment
Response Cost:
-)nvolves the removal of a specified amount of reinforce immediately following a
-Escape conditioning Negative Reinforcement and Punishment:
-Punishment is the aversive stimulus a loud tone is not present before the
response a tantrum, rather it’s presented after the response.
-Escape conditioning is the aversive stimulus loud tone must be present prior to an
escape response in good posture, and the aversive stimulus is removed
immediately following the escape response.
-Result: The punishment procedure decrease the likelihood of the target response of
tantrum, and the escape conditioning procedure increase the likelihood of the target
response of exhibiting good posture
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

**Escape conditioning is not a final contingency for maintain behavior but is
preparatory training for avoidance conditioning!
-Avoidance Conditioning: a contingency in which a behavior prevents an aversive
stimulus from occurring thereby resulting in an increase in the frequency of that
**Escape conditioning removes an aversive stimulus that has already occurred
**Avoidance Conditioning prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring at all.
)t often involves a warning stimulus conditioned aversive stimulus which is a
stimulus that signals a forthcoming aversive stimulus.
Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute
behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments Bandura,
,,. Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert
control over one’s won motivation, behavior, and social environment
Respondent Conditioning: Classical Conditioning Pavlov
--Repeated pairings to create conditioned reinforce
-(igher Order Pairing:
Conditioned stimuli paired with new unconditioned stimuli neutral stimuli to
produce the same behavior
Eliminating a Conditioned Reflex:
-Respondent extinction: presenting a CS bell while withholding the US food, with
the result that the CS gradually loses its capability of eliciting the CR.
Counter Conditioning:
CS will lose its ability to elicit a CR if that CS is paired with a stimulus that elicits a
response that is incompatible with the CR
Bandura’s Steps to social learning:
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

-Modeling is a procedure by which a sample of a given behavior is demonstrated to
an individual to induce that individual to engage in a similar behavior.
Physical Guidance:
-Often used as an aid for teaching individuals to follow instructions or imitate a
modeled behavior so that instruction or modeling can then be used without physical
guidance to establish other behaviors
Situation )nducement:
-When a situation influences behavior:
--Effect may due to behavior having been learned or modeled in that situation
previously. )e, being quiet in a library
--Physical elements of the situation may naturally elicit the behavior. )e, slow paced
music causes people to move at a slower pace
Bandura’s Theory of self- regulation:
-Controlling your own behavior
--Three steps: Self-observation; judgment; self response
Problems with self-control:
-Behavioral Excesses
--Too much behavior of a particular type
--Not a inappropriate behavior, simply too much of a behavior
EX: Eating, drinking alcohol, watching TV
-)mmediate Reinforcers and Delayed Punishers: Reward occurs immediately but
punisher does not occur for a period of time
-)mmediate Reinforcers and Cumulatively Significant Punishers: Reward occurs
immediately and punisher occurs immediately but is too small to be noticed until it
occurs numerous times
-Behavioral Deficiencies
-Too little behavior of a typical type, EX: Flossing your teeth, exercising
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version