FRHD 3150 Lecture Notes - The Techniques, Therapeutic Relationship

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
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Page 1 of 3
January 10, 2013
FRHD 3150- 01
January 10, 2013
3:35 PM
o Chapter 1
o Chapter 2
What is behaviour
o Human behaviour is highly complex (ie. Phobias)
o The way in which a person reacts to the environment
o The way in which an organism works (something the person is doing)
o Anything a person does or says
o Any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity
o Overt behaviour--> something visible
Dimension of the behaviour--> something that is measurable
Intensity, frequency, see if there is changes over time
o Martin & Pear
Covert behaviours or cognitive behaviours (something inside the mind)
o Not only those observable things
o Triangle with: (a) behaviour, (b) feelings/affect, (c)thoughts/ cognition
Products of behaviour
o It is important to separate "products of behaviour" from "behaviour"
o Ie. Exercising is a behaviour; losing weight is a product of behaviour
Behavioural labels
o It is important to separate "behavioural labels" from actual behaviours
o Ie. "hardworking" is a behavioural label; "depression" is a behavioural label
o Clapping= overt behaviour
o Riding a bike= overt behaviour
o Being tired= product of behaviour
o Laughing= responsive behaviour
o Yelling= behaviour
o Angry= covert behaviour; behavioural label; product of behaviour
Behavioural assessment
o Involves the collection and analysis of info and data in order to:
Identify and describe target behaviours
Identify possible causes of the behaviour
Guide the selection of an appropriate behavioural treatment
Evaluate the treatment outcome
o Ie. Tantrum in grocery store
Tantrum is the target behaviour
Cause= child not getting what they want
Solution= be careful how you respond; want to look at the bigger causes; might
have to backtrack when looking at the causes
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Behaviour assessment and modification as a science
o Define problems in terms of a behaviour that can be measured (observable
o Objective description of behaviour (don't try to incur the reason because it might be
hard to tell)--> what the therapist/ counsellor is seeing; should be the same for
everyone who works with the child
o Subjective comments--> what you think might be going on; different therapists may
have different subjective comments
o Demonstrate that the behaviour changed as a result of your intervention
Behavioural modification
o The techniques applied to modify behaviour
o "thus behaviour modification involves the systematic application of learning, principles
and techniques to assess and improve individuals' covert and overt behaviours to
enhance their functioning"
o Possible test question--> describe the difference between behavioural assessment and
behavioural modification
Assumptions of behavioural modification
o Behaviours are learned
o Behaviours are flexible and can be changed
Adaptive behaviours can be learned/ strengthened
Maladaptive behaviours can be weakened/ distinguished
Maladaptive behaviour= behaviour that is not well suited to a particular context;
a behaviour that is not going to lead to a desirable outcome; behaviours that
inhibit a person's ability to adjust to particular situations; ability to function in
certain contexts
o Behaviour occurs, and can be observed, within a specific content
Preceding event, behaviour and subsequent result
Kids behaving like angels with other people, but don't behave at home
o Learn behaviours from parents, people around them, reinforcements, punishments,
association (positive or negative), addictive behaviours (some more susceptible than
Behaviour modification- common themes
o Address (learned) maladaptive behaviours (changeable)
o Specific goals or outcomes are laid out
o Focus on the present, not the past (or future)--> Freud focused on the past
o Behaviour modification focuses on punishment
Time-outs, don't focus on punishment, repertoire of strategies, can combine
o Behaviour modification can be applied to deal with simple problems, but not complex
or deeply rooted problems, such as low self-esteem or depression
Used quite successfully to treat a number of different problems
o Behaviour modification is outdated
Use it quite a bit in a number of different ways; improving
o Behaviour modifiers do not develop rapport, empathy, or therapeutic relationships
when working with clients
Has changed over the years
Factors of influence
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Extratherapeutic factors
-means of communication
-readiness for change (ie. Addictions)
Therapeutic relationship
-sense of engaging
-eye contact
Expectancy and hope
Therapy type and technique