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FRHD 3150 Lecture Notes - Seat Belt, Token Economy, Electric Shock

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

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January 17, 2013
FRHD 3150- 01
January 17, 2013
3:53 PM
Define or describe behaviour modification (sample question)
o Behaviour modification is commonly used to help people change behaviours. It is
defined as the systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess
and improve people's maladaptive (covert and overt) behaviours. The purpose of using
behaviour modification is to enhance daily functioning.
o Sometimes examples can be a good idea
Youtube clip "john watson- little albert"
Operant conditioning youtube clip
o Pigeon
o Peck the "peck" sign
o Turn when the "turn" sign is shown
o Given food when they do it right
o Pecking coloured disk was measured on a graph
o Deprived pigeon of food
Reinforcement and punishment
o Positive reinforcement stimuli = reward
o Negative reinforcement = removing aversive
Ie. Putting seat belt on so awful noise stops
Doesn't work as well
o Positive punishment= aversive stimuli (adding something)--> want to decrease a
Ie. Spraying dog with squirt bottle, spanking, yelling or scolding
o Negative punishment= removing reward--> want to decrease behaviour
Ie. Taking tokens, timeout
o Look at target behaviour
o Examples
Candy= positive reinforcement (has to be something the person actually wants)
Could take candy away= negative punishment
Consumable type of reward
Types of rewards
Social (ie. Hugs)
Possessional (something you give)
Activity (allowing them to engage in some kind of enjoyable activity, ie.
Going to the park)
Manipulative ( ie. Surfing on the internet, something the child can
manipulate, colouring or painting,
Electric shock= positive punishment (adding something)
Removing an electrical current= negative reinforcement
A child's 'time out'= negative punishment
Compliment= positive reinforcement
Stopping 'nagging'= negative reinforcement
Spanking= positive punishment
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Practical points for positive reinforcement
o Identify a specific target behaviour
o Choose a strong reinforcement
o Reinforcer immediacy
o Motivating operations
Establishing operation--> deprivation (ie. Skinner deprived pigeons of food)
Abolishing operation--> satiation (ie. Pigeon will eventually get full)
Pitfall of positive reinforcement
o Reinforce the wrong behaviour
o Reinforce avoidance
Changing to natural reinforcers
o Natural reinforcers= those that occur as a normal course of our environment
Token economy
o Group of people who earn tokens for positive behaviour and can exchange tokens for
o Back-up reinforcer- the actual reinforce (what tokens are exchanged for)