FRHD 3150 Lecture Notes - Operant Conditioning, Reinforcement, Sn 1885A

2 views3 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
Page:
of 3
Page 1 of 3
January 29, 2013 (chapters 8-11)
FRHD 3150-01
Midterm
Question on the film (Lavoi)
Pick a health behaviour that you want to change and change it for the positive
Film "23 and 1/2 hours : What is the single best thing we can do for our health?" (youtube clip)
Exercise: mostly walking
1/2 an hour to 1 hour exercising/ day
Low fitness was the best predictor of death
Chapters 12 and 13 WILL NOT be on the midterm
Objectives
Stimulus discrimination
Fading
Shaping
Chaining
Contextual stimuli
Stimuli
o Anything that you can perceive as present in your environment context
Stimulus control
o The degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and of the
particular response
Types of stimuli
Discriminative stimulus (SD)
o When the consequence only occurs in the presence of the stimulus
Stimulus delta
o If this stimulus is present, then response will not be reinforced
o When the consequence never occurs in the presence of the stimulus
Stimulus discrimination training
Procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an SD
And extinguishing that response in the presence of stimulus delta
Ie. Posting a sign in a classroom that says "be courteous and pay attention" ;
o Discriminative stimulus: people paying attention, sitting in their seat
o Stimulus delta: interrupting the learning experience of people around you
Stimulus generalization
Procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect
of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation
When the behaviour remains the same across various stimuli
o Ie. If a teacher was replaced, it would be a different stimulus
How do we generalize
o Physical similarity
Stimuli are highly similar in appearance
o Common-element stimulus class
Some similarities suggesting a common class (ie. Dogs)
o Stimulus equivalence class
Entirely dissimilar but same class (ie. Food)
Fading
Page 2 of 3
The gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response
so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or even new stimulus
The gradual transfer of control from one stimuli to another
o Ie. Teaching a child how to say their own name; 1st say their name and point to them
and eventually you'll be asking "what is your name?"; same response but different
question
Involves successive steps to work towards the desired stimuli/ context, using prompts and
reinforcement
Errorless learning
Use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discriminations so that no errors occur
Shaping
The development of a new behaviour by reinforcement of successive approximations, and
extinguishing earlier approximations
Youtube clip "B.F Skinner: shaping"
Youtube clip "free shaping with an Australian Cattle Dog)
o Trial and error learning; operant conditioning
o Example of successive approximation
o Could be used for potty training, training to run a triathlon, depression therapy
o Every time they get closer to their goal, they get a reward
Shaping- pacing
Reinforce an approximation several times before preceding
Avoid over reinforcing an approximation
If you lose the behaviour, return to previous approximation, reinforce, then add a smaller
step
Chaining
Behavioural chain
A consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in
which the last response is typically followed by reinforcement
o A sequence of behaviours that build into a larger more complex behaviour or skill
o The last behaviour must cue the next behaviour, and prompts are frequently used in
training to help establish this chain of cues
Backward chaining (chances of using this are small)
o Gradually constructs the chain of behaviours beginning with the final behaviour and
working in reverse order
o Maintains consistent final behaviour that is rewarded
Starting with the last behaviour, each behaviour is mastered before learning the
next behaviour
Prompts are provided to encourage the next behaviour in the sequence
The last step is followed by the reinforcer
On each trail, on previously mastered steps are required in sequence to receive
the reinforcer on the last trial
Forward chaining
o Gradually constructs chain of behaviours beginning with first behaviour in chain and
working forward
Starting with the first behaviour, each behaviour is mastered before learning the
next behaviour
Prompts are provided to encourage the next behaviour in the sequence
The last step is followed by the reinforcer
Page 3 of 3
On each trial, on previously mastered steps are required in sequence to receive
the reinforcer on the last trial
o Youtube clip "Teach put toys away- dog training- NOT boot camp- Jacksonville, FL"
First click any interaction with the toy
Total-task presentation
o All behaviours in chain are attempted in their consecutive sequence from beginning to
end
Every step is attempted so that all unmastered steps are taught concurrently
Prompts and praise for unmastered steps is provided
Reinforcer follows final step
Training continues until all steps are mastered
Fading, shaping, chaining
Fading--> reinforcing the same behaviour across different stimuli/ contexts through
successive trials
Shaping--> reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour
Chaining--> reinforcing a sequence of behaviours, usually in a successive sequence