FRHD 3150 Lecture Notes - Equivalence Class, Observational Learning, Operant Conditioning

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March 5, 2013 (chapters 16-19)
FRHD 3150
Midterm covers chapters 12-22; milgram study (obedience); zimbardo video; guest lecture on
parenting programs; article by lance and collegues (access through course reserve)
o About 20 multiple choice and 15 marks short answer
o March 12, 2013
Chapter 16
Generalization
o Stimulus generalization
Things in the environment that stimulate people
Behaviour becomes more probable in the presence of a new stimulus as a result of
having being reinforced in the presence of a different stimulus previously
May occur because of:
Physical similarity
Stimuli in common-element class
Stimuli in equivalence class; same classification but they probably look different
(dogs can look very different from each other but are in the same class)
o Response generalization
A behaviour is more probable in the presence of a stimulus as a result of another
behaviour having been strengthened in the presence of the same or a similar stimulus
May occur because of:
Considerable physical similarity of responses (ie. Pluralizing words; moving from
singular to plural)
Minimal physical similarity of responses
Functionally equivalent responses
Programming
o 2 important situations
Training situation (where you get used to training; ie training in a swimming pool and
doing a race in a lake)
Target situation (to where we want the behaviour to generalize)
o The more physically similar the training and the target situations are the more stimulus
generalization will occur
Programming: stimulus generalization
o Train in the target situation when possible
o Programs common stimuli
If not in the target situation use stimuli from that situation
o Use multiple stimuli to encourage generalization
Programming: response generalization
o Train a variety of responses
o Allow for and reward new/ creative responses that are appropriate
Maintenance
o Create natural rewards to ensure behaviour continues to be reinforced
o Teach others (ie. Parents) to reinforce appropriate behaviours
o Use intermittent schedules of reinforcement
o Give control to the individual
Chapter 17 and 19
Society trains us!
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Rules
o When there is contingency between a behaviour and a consequence
o Can function as behavioural cues or prompts
Reminder of the rule can change behaviour because the rule has already been learned
(experiencing the consequence again is unnecessary
ie. "don't speed here or you'll get a ticket
o "partial rules"
A prompt that refers to part of the rule to act as a reminder
Ie. "don't speed here
Can occur naturally
Ie. If you don't get enough sleep you'll be tired
Can be created
Ie. If you go to bed on time you'll get a story
o Use rules whenever you can!
Put the behavioural program into words
Explain which behaviour will have consequences and what those consequences
will do
Explain when the consequences will occur (direct versus indirect acting effects)
o Rules are especially effective when:
You need to change behaviour quickly (ie. When a child tries to stick their fingers in an
electrical socket)
Consequences are delayed (indirect acting effects)
Natural consequences are highly intermittent
Low contingency between behaviour and consequence in natural environment (ie.
Speeding tickets)
Consequence is sever
Contingency shaped vs rule shaped
o Contingency shaped behaviour
Learned from your environment/ context over trial and error
Requires more immediacy
Requires greater learning time
May be context specific
o Rule shaped behaviour
Learned through contingency of rule
Learned more quickly (sometimes immediately)
Requires less immediacy- can make use of indirect-acting effects
Effective rules
o Effective rules have:
Specific descriptions of the behaviour
Specific descriptions of the circumstance/ context
Probable consequences
Consistently occur
Sizable consequences (worthwhile)
Deadline for behaviour
o Can be understood by the client
o Can be broken down into easy-to-follow steps
Goals
o Provide motivation
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o Provide sense of purpose and direction
o Involve commitment
o Are used when:
Reinforcement is intermittent (goal is to engage in the behaviour enough times that it is
reinforced)
The behaviour is required over a long duration before reinforced
o Effective goals:
Are specific
Include mastery criteria
Specify context/ circumstances
Are realistic challenges (rather than 'do your best')
Public commitment to goal
Involve a deadline for behaviour
Involve monitoring and feedback
Complex goals
o Complex are more effective when:
They can be broken down into a number of short-term goals
o Long-term goals are more effective when:
An action plan is devised
ABC of behaviour change
o Antecedent
A stimuli that precedes (come before) the behaviour
Controlling stimulus
Discriminative stimulus
Stimulus Delta
Rules
Goals
Modelling
Motivation
o Behaviour
o consequence
Motivation
o Does motivation cause behaviour?
It can but so can other things
o Risks of evaluating motivation
Use it to blame an individual for poor performance
'you're just not motivated'
'you're just not trying hard enough'
Motivating operations (MOS)
o Behaviourists can see motivation as externally controlled (primarily)
o They use 'motivation' and 'motivating operations' as synonyms
o Motivating establishing operations (MEOs)
Temporary
Increasing effectiveness of a consequence
Ie. Food deprivation (ie. Skinner and his doves)
o Motivating abolishing operations (MAOs)
Temporarily decrease the value of a reincorcer or punisher
Decrease the effectiveness of a consequence

Document Summary

Midterm covers chapters 12-22; milgram study (obedience); zimbardo video; guest lecture on parenting programs; article by lance and collegues (access through course reserve: about 20 multiple choice and 15 marks short answer, march 12, 2013. Things in the environment that stimulate people. Behaviour becomes more probable in the presence of a new stimulus as a result of having being reinforced in the presence of a different stimulus previously. Stimuli in equivalence class; same classification but they probably look different (dogs can look very different from each other but are in the same class: response generalization. A behaviour is more probable in the presence of a stimulus as a result of another behaviour having been strengthened in the presence of the same or a similar stimulus. Considerable physical similarity of responses (ie. pluralizing words; moving from singular to plural) Training situation (where you get used to training; ie training in a swimming pool and doing a race in a lake)