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GEOG 3020
Noella Gray

GEOG* 2030 Gender, Environment and Development 2013-10-08 Today‟s Plan  Gender, Environment & Development o What is gender? o Why/how is it relevant to environment and development? o Examples Quizzes – UNESCO 2006  What percentage of the world‟s 1.3 billion people living in extreme poverty are women and girls? o a) 50% o b) 60% o c) 70% o d) 80%  What percentage of the world‟s working hours are worked by women? o a) 33% o b) 50% o c) 66%  What percentage of property worldwide is owned by women? o a) 5% o b) 10% o c) 25% o d) 50%  What does this mean? o Both poverty and livelihoods are gendered o For example, women‟s access to livelihood assets is often different from men‟s  UN video: o Integration of women into development is still current; require equal access to land, credit and inheritance rights should be changed What is Gender?  Social/cultural role, NOT biological difference  Sex does not equal gender  What are examples of typical/traditional gender role? o Women at home cleaning, cooking and raising kids – but these qualities are learned, we are not born with these skills Gender and Environment  Are women “closer to nature” than men? o Different people have different ways of answering this question  Ecofeminism says YES o Women are closer to nature o Patriarchy oppresses women AND nature  Masculinity associated with: capitalism, colonialism, exploitation, violence o Moving toward this feminine connection will result in better environmental management  Feminist Environmentalism says IT DEPENDS o Women‟s connection to nature is not „natural‟ o It depends on a gendered divisions of labour/access  Through work  Through property rights o Gender roles are socially constructed, not inherent Example: Gender and Water Collection  Socially constructed as women‟s work  Everyday issues o Time (how much times does it take, is it time away from other aspects; education, work), health, safety  Environmental knowledge o Water location, quality, seasonality – know these things because its their job to know  Access to water o Irrigation rights, privatization Clarifying Gender and Environment  Essentialism vs. constructivism o We will take a constructivist position, why and how men‟s and women‟s relationship with environment are socially constructed and the consequences of this  Concepts of gender, nature, culture are historically and socially constructed – vary across and within cultures and time periods  „Women‟ not a homogeneous category – vary by class, age, race, etc. – we are not talking about universal experiences Gender and Environment  Human–environment interactions are gendered:  1. Gendered knowledge (men and women tend to know different things because of what they have learned through socially assigned roles)  2. Gendered access and responsibilities (example of water collection, and what kind of access to assets do men and women have?)  3. Gendered activism o Results in politics (power struggles) within households as well as between men and women Example 1: The Gambia  Local livelihood strategies  Gendered knowledge  Gendered access (to land) and responsibilities (division of labour)  o Shows that men and women have different knowledge related to different responsibilities; also men and women have different access to land, and property rights are gendered (land owned and passed down from man to man)  External interventions o Development programs:  1970s-80s: WID (“Women in Development”)  1990s: WED (“Women, Environment and Development”)  men an
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