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LN-Sept 19.docx

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GEOG 3020
Noella Gray

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1 GEOG* 2030 Sustainable Development and the rise of Neoliberalism 2013-09-19 Today‟s Plan Sustainable Development  Key moments (events/documents)  Ecological Modernization  Free Market Environmentalism Neoliberalism in SD  Example: REDD What are environment and development?  Environment + Development = Sustainable development Sustainable Development – Key Moments 1972: Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment  First international meeting devoted to topic of environment  Impetus: initially motivated by developed country concerns‟ (e.g. acid rain) -> early environmentalism  Approach was meant to limit development to protect environment – developing countries did not necessarily agree with this  Outcome: Creation of UN Environment Programme (UNEP)  Critique: no guidance on how to combine environment and development 1980: World Conservation Strategy / Caring for the Earth  Document prepared by IUCN (international NGO)– IUCN has a seat at the UN  “Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development”: first time that the term sustainable development is used  Impetus: commissioned by UNEP; raise awareness about conservation (-> evolving environmentalism)  Outcome: development viewed as „means‟ rather than obstruction to conservation  Critique: too focused on conservation; does not address economic/political processes underlying development challenges (e.g. population) 1987: “Our Common Future”- Brundtland Report  Term SD reached households during this time  “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (WCED 1987) o Becomes the most popular definition of SD  Impetus: UN desire for long-term environmental strategy  Outcome: popularized SD as an idea; identifies poverty as problem, economic growth as solution 2  Critique: naïve to power relations – did not critique the way development is done (supported status quo) 1992: UNCED – Rio Earth Summit  opportunity for international community to get together and check on how everyone is doing  largest ever international meeting for any topic  heads of state from 116 different countries showed up  Impetus: report on progress towards „Our Common Future‟  Outcome: Agreement and guideline (Agenda 21 – 600 pages of instruction for SD, CBD, UNFCCC etc.), awareness!  Critique: North/South divided; insufficient financial support o Debates over responsibility over the issues o In order to meet agreements, 600 billion dollars a year would need to be provided 2002: World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg)  no significant new outputs or agreements – a document was put out and elaborated what was done during the first earth summit 2012: UNCED – “Rio+20” i.e. Rio 20 years later  “The Future we Want” – only document that was being argued about  40,000 people showed up (first had about 8,000) – so that was a success  Widely perceived as a „failure‟ o far fewer heads of state attended, far fewer outputs o no new agreements or commitments; outcome document was weak  Outcome: changing discourse -> from SD to the „green economy‟ SD -> Green Economy  “Green Economy” as newest version of environment + development  meant to be something that sounds appealing, yet people do object  Was one of t
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