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LN-Sept 26.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 3020
Professor
Noella Gray

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GEOG*2030 – Livelihoods 2013-09-26 TODAY‟S PLAN  Livelihoods o Definition o Strategies o Livelihoods and environment o Livelihoods and scale  Chain of explanation (Sustainable) Livelihoods Livelihoods – History  Response to the focus on poverty in „Our Common Future‟ (main problem in developing world is poverty)  Focus on individuals as agents in development studies – „people make their own history‟ o Need to consider constrains, as well as what people can and will do  Building on idea of sust devpt: “sustainable rural livelihoods” (Chambers & Conway 1991) o A way for people to make a living sustainability (get or stay out of poverty) o A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources), and activities required for a means of living Capabilities  Capabilities – what people can do or be (e.g. physical labour)  Emphasis on well-being & choice – what they do is their choice and depends on their own definition of well-being Assets  Human capital: skills & education/knowledge  Financial capital: access to capital to pay for education; loans, family money, credit, jobs etc.  Social capital: social network; who do you know, who are you affiliated with  Physical capital: access to infrastructure, equipment etc.  Natural capital: land, access to water, animals, Activities  Livelihood Strategies  Typically focus on rural areas of developing countries  3 dominant strategies o agricultural intensification (producing more on your land) /extensification (expanding the area under production)  might be based on more access to financial capital, could increase physical assets, have more kids to have more human capital etc. o livelihood diversification (wage labour, rural industry, remittances)  doing things in addition to what they are already doing o migration What affects people‟s livelihoods?  Risks: environmental (e.g. drought), violence (e.g. displacement)  Opportunities: technologies to improve practices, acquiring new assets, access to education  Institutions: training opportunities? Land tenure policies, do they have access?  Services: access to credit in the area etc. Sustainable Livelihoods  “A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base” (Scoones 1998, p. 5) Livelihood and Environment  Sustainable livelihoods require natural resource sustainability  Livelihoods --> environment o Livelihood strategies impact the environment (How?) – e.g. excessive pesticides or fertilizers, o Environmental change impacts on livelihoods (How?) – e.g. climate change, can no longer grow a crop in that area  Importance of „enviro
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