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GEOG 3020 Lecture Notes - Nationstates, Cotton Fields

4 pages63 viewsFall 2013

Course Code
GEOG 3020
Noella Gray

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GEOG 2030 - 01: Basic Concepts 09/17/2013
Lots of ways of thinking about it
Difficult to measure or assess – how do you know who has what power?
It’s relational – subject to change depending on context and actors involved (exm, teacher in a
classroom has more power than students)
“the ability to be successful in a conflict–this may be overt through force or threat of force, or
covert…” (Taylor & Flint 2000, p. 374)
Whoever is successful in asserting preference can be more powerful
Overt power: shows of force by actors such as military might – threat of intervention for example
carries weight
Covert power:
Four types of power in Political Ecology (Bryant 1997)
Look for Bryant’s description in reading
1) Power to control access to environmental resources
Limit access in some way, either let no one use it or limit its use
Governments control this power unless resources are owned privately
2) Power to control environmental quality (aka power to pollute)
Union Carbide exploded - harmful toxins harming the individuals living in Bhopal, India – dirty
industries being exported
E-waste in China being shipped from richer countries
Rich countries dumping on poor countries
Private firms and companies, those making money from these industries
3) Power to control distribution of support (financial or political)
GEF – global environment facility, provides money to fund UN agreements, international projects,
Works largely through financial input from countries
Not just giving money, also political sanction/support of certain projects over others
2013 budget, restructuring of CIDA – Canadian International Development Association
affects environment and development together
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