Class Notes (974,019)
CA (574,303)
U of G (28,614)
GEOG (655)
GEOG 3020 (38)

GEOG 3020 Lecture Notes - Nationstates, Cotton Fields

by OneClass105161 , Fall 2013
4 Pages
Fall 2013

Course Code
GEOG 3020
Noella Gray

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
GEOG 2030 - 01: Basic Concepts 09/17/2013
Lots of ways of thinking about it
Difficult to measure or assess – how do you know who has what power?
It’s relational – subject to change depending on context and actors involved (exm, teacher in a
classroom has more power than students)
“the ability to be successful in a conflict–this may be overt through force or threat of force, or
covert…” (Taylor & Flint 2000, p. 374)
Whoever is successful in asserting preference can be more powerful
Overt power: shows of force by actors such as military might – threat of intervention for example
carries weight
Covert power:
Four types of power in Political Ecology (Bryant 1997)
Look for Bryant’s description in reading
1) Power to control access to environmental resources
Limit access in some way, either let no one use it or limit its use
Governments control this power unless resources are owned privately
2) Power to control environmental quality (aka power to pollute)
Union Carbide exploded - harmful toxins harming the individuals living in Bhopal, India – dirty
industries being exported
E-waste in China being shipped from richer countries
Rich countries dumping on poor countries
Private firms and companies, those making money from these industries
3) Power to control distribution of support (financial or political)
GEF – global environment facility, provides money to fund UN agreements, international projects,
Works largely through financial input from countries
Not just giving money, also political sanction/support of certain projects over others
2013 budget, restructuring of CIDA – Canadian International Development Association
affects environment and development together

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
1 GEOG 2030 ­ 01: Basic Concepts                          09/17/2013 Power Lots of ways of thinking about it Difficult to measure or assess – how do you know who has what power? It’s relational – subject to change depending on context and actors involved (exm, teacher in a  classroom has more power than students) “the ability to be successful in a conflict–this may be overt through force or threat of force, or  covert…” (Taylor & Flint 2000, p. 374) Whoever is successful in asserting preference can be more powerful Overt power: shows of force by actors such as military might – threat of intervention for example  carries weight Covert power:  Four types of power in Political Ecology (Bryant 1997) Look for Bryant’s description in reading 1) Power to control access to environmental resources Limit access in some way, either let no one use it or limit its use Governments control this power unless resources are owned privately 2) Power to control environmental quality (aka power to pollute) Union Carbide exploded ­ harmful toxins harming the individuals living in Bhopal, India – dirty  industries being exported E­waste in China being shipped from richer countries Rich countries dumping on poor countries Private firms and companies, those making money from these industries 3) Power to control distribution of support (financial or political) GEF – global environment facility, provides money to fund UN agreements, international projects,  etc. Works largely through financial input from countries  Not just giving money, also political sanction/support of certain projects over others 2013 budget, restructuring of CIDA – Canadian International Development Association affects environment and development together 2 4) Power to control discourse and ideal (‘the public transcript’) Official version of what problems are and how we should solve them For example, climate change ­  whether or not it is an actual problem Power to control distribution of support – where is funding directed?  What kinds of projects are funded are decided by whether we think   something is a problem **Review Bryant’s reading examples** “Power is entangled in social relations between agents that differ in their interest, identities and  resources” (Few 2002:31). Governments, NGOs, industries, individuals Tradeoffs in how these actors interact Power: ‘Reading’ the landscape Physical environment as manifestation of power relations (Bryant) EXM: Three Gorges Damn in China – flooded a huge area of land and displaced numerous people Shows evidence of exercise of power Support, displacement, environmental quality, battles in controlling discourse Overt exercise of power, but there are also acts of resistance Julia “Butterfly” Hill Late 1990s in the US, lots of politics over logging and damage of habitat of endangered species She lived in a tree for 2 years as a physical way of preventing logging More subtle intervention than Three Gorges Damn “Politics” – the “Political” in this class, “Politics is understood as the practices and processes through which power, in its  multiple forms (4 types above), is wielded and negotiated” (Paulson et al. 2003: 209).  Power and politics are everywhere, not just where gov’t is involved Includes informal politics within households, between classes and social groups, etc. – wherever  there is more than one person, there is politics. This means that there is decisions being made over  power Power and Knowledge ‘Knowledge is power’ – what does this mean? ‘Power is knowledge’ –what does this mean? 3 Discourses – what counts as knowledge? Who decides what counts as knowledge; those in power. Power both “coercive” and “enabling” (power not ‘good’ or ‘bad’) The exercise of power can be used to enable and limit achievement of goals Relative power ­> “agency” We all have the ability to act, which can be constrained by how we interact with those around us Coercion + legitimacy/consent ­> effective power When they are combined, we have the most effect
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.