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Lecture 4

WEEK 4 - Environment and Urbanization.docx

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GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

Environment and Urbanization The Limits of Land Titling and Home Ownership Introduction – From Sub-Prime to Global Virus - Sub-prime housing scandal in the US exploded into a financial crisis then an economic recession threatening to affect the whole world – the issue of housing& land tenure became important (a sectoral policy affected the whole globe) – raised concern for vulnerable groups/countries - Loans crisis in UK/US awakening for financial institutions & authorities responsible for ensuring standards of operation are sound/ethical/sustainable - Counterproductive to promote land/home ownership to ppl unable to service loans (interest rates high) - To be seen if this has decreased home ownership & land titling programmes in low/middle income countries where affordability levels are lower & more vulnerable to change - 2005 loans to “sub-prime” borrowers increasing o Concern about promotion of home ownership in low/middle income countries w/o empirical foundation to justify – proposal to research the social/economic impacts of this approach & policies providing land titles to residents of unauthorized settlements - Aim  assess nature & extent of knowledge of the outcomes of land titling as a means of promoting social/economic devt & reducing poverty - Land titling: allocation of real property rights on land - Key issue: extent to which titles are an essential requirement, as opposed to one of a number of options, to achieving the objectives of increasing tenure security, property investment, access to formal credit and reducing poverty & the need for future slums and unauthorized urban devt - 1) key aspects of relship b/w tenure& devt and some methodological issues facing such a review - 2) evidence on impacts of titling & constraints, implementation of titling, ways its been reviewed - 3) conclusions drawn and issues for further analysis identified II. Tenure and Development - Link b/w secure tenure and poverty reduction - De Soto  Poverty b/c of undeveloped property regimes – poor hold assets but in defective form therefore “dead capital”– by giving poor land titles can “enliven” the dead capital and use properties as collateral for loans to get out of poverty o Unsure if does enliven dead capital - More nuanced approaches recognized (ex. not sole solution to solving the poor’s problems) - Titling not always result in increased assets for poor: costly process, rarely adapted to variety of land rights& tenure categories, access to mortgage credit difficult w/o formal financial system - World Banks promotion of secure tenure 2 objectives: o 1) improve tenure security for residents in informal settings o 2) increase security for domestic& international investors promoting economic devt III. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Evidence - Identifying factors relating to social/economic impacts of titling need to measure variables difficult to quantify - Data on housing markets in low/middle income countries limited - Attribution: extent changes in the social/economic characteristics of those affected can be attributed to titling - Examine impacts for various social groups differentiating according to appropriate local dimensions of social diff & distinguishing b/w households and individuals - Evidence collected using: secondary sources, a stakeholder analysis, key informant interview, surveys & case studies, focus groups, local workshops IV. The Social Impacts of Urban and Peri-Urban Titling Programmes a. Impacts on Tenure Security - Most important justification for land titling programmes is they increase tenure security – however, security is a relative concept and a matter of perception as well as law - Often implemented in areas where residents of unauthorized settlements already have de facto tenure security – look at increase in security in places w/o such de facto rights - One outcome of titling programmes is a reduction in security of tenure (not necessarily protected from forced evictions - Increased security may be achieved via several means other than titling, and provision of titling may reduce security for tenants and newly titled owners b/c of sudden enhanced value of their assets to higher-income groups (or ppl w ability to take advantage of the changed tenure status) - Specifies women on the ownership records - Sengel Case o First W. African country to implement a nationwide tenure regularization programme based on the delivery of real property rights in urban areas o Signif % households entitles to regularization haven’t completed the process of registering their rights - Tenure formalization may induce long-term gentrification (espesh near cities or potentially high value locations) b. Do land titles promote active urban land and housing markets? - Promotes active land/housing market where property traded like other economic resources/commodities - Most regard their properties as social assets not economic commodities to be traded in the market - 3 situations where post-titling sales seem significant 1) distress sales 2) sales in peri-urban locations to which
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