GEOG Lecture 2 January 15, 2014
+/ 5% of the word count is allowed, but past that point you’ll be penalized.
Theories of Urbanization : Measuring and Monitoring Urbanization
How cities arose in the Global South : some of the first emerged in the middle east, but
they have existed for hundreds, sometimes thousands of years. It isn’t true that there was
nothing there before the European influence, they actually had cities prior to us coming
Colonial City Structures: we still see the legacy in modern cities. 2 main trends when
Europeans came to the global south
1) they made brand new cities ▯sometimes they just wanted a symbolic European
presence. Examples: Mumbai, Nairobi
2) adapted cities ▯they already existed but colonial powers agreed it was well positioned
and established, they were just going to take over the physical functioning and symbolism
of it. Examples: Delhi, Tunis. They replaced and covered past civilizations Examples:
Tenochitlan ▯ history of the eagle coming and landing on it signifying that that would be
the place for the civilization of Aztec people. People came in and took it over and wanted
to cover the existing infrastructure to show their power over the space.
What do they look like? Typically you see strong European influence from the layout to
the structure of buildings and you see a melding of functions. Colonial administrations
and commerce ▯separation from the “regular” people, military security and indigeneous
commerce and residence.
Example: honnoi. Vietnam ▯amazing building was to house the French power, made
street names to represent France, after independence the local president refused to live in
the house that was built for this figure.
Colonial city structures: “the city was the instrument of conquest”
Colonial cities served as centers for European political administration, exercises of
discipline and justice, hygiene/sanitation, cultural dissemination and economic
concentration. Focus on cleanliness and euro behavior.
These were usually trading posts and administrative centres, rather than centres of
manufacturing and production. When former colonies gained their independence many of
these cities maintained their preindustrial character, although local citizens were
substituted for European administrators.
Local political powers decided they wanted to stay in those cities when independence
happened and so we still continue to see these places as administrative. Economics tend
to be focused on the international trade aspect.
Gateway cities: provide connections between regions, they tend to be located on water
crossing over regions or having ports for easy trade over sea.
Economic Specialization: historically, agriculture or other types of extractive primary
sector economic specialization in the Global South ▯concentrated on exports.
Now other specializations too: a) manufacturing ▯1) import substitution. They are able to import more things,
broaden their availability of resources. They are going to start manufacturing
some of their own goods at home instead of importing everything, so that they can
depend on their country alone for more things. Mixed results, some places took
root like in Buenos Aires. 2) production for international markets; export
processing zones, maquiladoras (cities of factories) ▯instead of just
manufacturing to serve the needs of their local people, they try to serve the
international market. Historically came later, but is still predominant.
b) Tourism, and some tertiary services and sales, and quaternary sector
specialization. More hotels, preservation of architecture etc. research and
development, banking , finance, high rise office towers etc more universities.
Global North Urbanization:
Extractive model of urbanization a) increased wealth for urban development in Europe ▯
it takes money to build roads, buildings etc b) historically, urbanization in the Global
North accompanied industrialization (where this isn’t always true in the Global South)
The European city became the model for urban growth and development worldwide. In
some places it was imposed on indigenous societies and they were displaced, it
sometimes existed alongside of them and transformed them.
Persistence of indigenous urbanism:
Not all urban systems in the global south are relics of colonialism.
Examples: China ▯fengshui inspired placement, in the urban system historically it was
based around having one centre and then having multiple small towns around it. People
were used to travelling into authoritybased centers. MENA: middle east and north Africa
▯predominance of religious buildings, outside of this generally speaking we don’t see
fancy facades of buildings on the outside, it matters more so on the inside including
Theories of urban growth in the Global South:
A theory is a way of making sense of reality
1) classical traditional approaches: dualistic economic structures (underdeveloped
indigenous sector and modern developed sector) – prescription is “modernization”
and “polarization reversal” (trickledown) instead of having really affluent people
and really poor people we need to bring them closer together which is said to
happen through economic development – perceived need to invest in economic
“takeoff” (rostow) idea that these are pre modern societies and they will
eventually reach the maturity of the global north. Big focus on economics.
2) Historical approaches: what happened in the past and that will tell us what will
happen or what should happen. Teleological explanations for urban structures and
resulting polarization – idea they will eventually turn into the global north – very
situation based ▯ awareness of social context. Example: in the beginning we have
a bunch of small underdeveloped areas that aren’t really related to one another,
over time we see the emergence of a single strong centre and the other places
move in towards that, then over time we see close surrounding areas becoming
more important as well (inter relationship through sharing workers, resources and systems) the larger cities may have more power etc but their success feeds and is
based on the surroundings. Example of the mercantile model: few people come
and begin to discover, they then return and use some resources etc and being to
establish themselves, they then start to create cities etc around the “port” in the
motherland and the point of attachment of the new community. Example
plantation :run by a colonial power, after people were no longer slaves they began
farming, and over time there are more shareholders there is greater productivity
and expansion of the urban area with linkages to the rural. Example Hoyt model:
“basic” model of how cities in work in general. Central business, big residential
communities, **low class people, middle class and highclass people and areas all
within the one city. We also see industry ▯model majorly based in the global north
▯when the city is smaller we still need all of these functions, and when the city
gets bigger it just grows outward (Latin America). (Africa) we don’t see the same
level of commercial development, instead of industry its more focused on mining.
The idea is that the segregation of people was very intentional. (Asia) the high
income and lowincome areas are typically close to one another. **all of these
models carry a lot of assumptions based on the past and projections that the future
will be the same.
3) Radical political economy/ dependency approach: The premis is that the
development of places in the north is dependent on exploitation of the south with
their resources. Dependency school ▯ World systems theory ▯immanel
wallerstein : seeks to explain and describe the interdependence of different
regions – cores ,periphery, semi peripheries , external. There are cores in the
periphery, and peripheries in the core. Active underdevelopment/ undevelopment ▯
on purpose, for the core to get ahead someone else has to be left behind ,
interconnection and exploitation. There was nowhere that was “untouched” by
Criticisms: dominance of “system” scale ▯the economy matters, its not about individual
places and the history, its about the bigger economic processes/picture. The way to
address under development is economic development. Capital centric.
Pros: Cities arise out of the capital accumulation and surplus (you have to have wealth to