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GEOG 3490
Noella Gray

GEOG*3490 – Travel and Tourism and the Environment What is Tourism?  Tourist: a visitor who stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited (WTO/UN 1993)  Tourism comprises “the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year from leisure, business or other purposes” (WTO 1991)  For statistical purposes the term ‘visitor’ describes any person visiting a country other than that in which he has his usual place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited (First Intergovernmental Conference on Tourism, Rome, 1963)  “The study of tourism is the study of people away from their usual habitat, of the establishments which respond to the requirements of travelers and of the impacts that they have on the economic Five Characteristics of a Tourist  The tourist is not from the area being visited  The tourist has moved (travelled) from one permanent location to a non- permanent location  Visits for less than a year  Purpose of the visit may be recreation or business, but the tourist cannot be paid from within the visited area  The tourist spends at least one night in private or communal accommodation Characteristics of the Study of Tourism  Consider both ‘hosts’ and ‘guests’  Consider economic, social, environmental impacts Tourism Definitions  Why do definitions matters? o Affect how tourism is measured --_ what kinds of data are collected and analyzed o Affects how tourism is planned and managed  How are impacts identified and measured?  How are impacts mitigated? Tourism Requires:  Desire or reason to travel  Places to go and way to get to them  Time and money to travel Stages of Tourism Development  Early days (up until 1800s) o Ancient Romans o Escape of heat of Rome in the summer, travel to coastal resort areas o Facilitated by Roman transportation infrastructure o Collapse of Roman empire  travel becomes more difficult o “Holiday” derived from the words ‘holy’ and ‘day’ o Pilgrimages  E.g. Muslim Hajj to Mecca  E.g. Camino de Santiago in Spain o ‘Grand Tour’ 1600s-1800s o Aristocratic men completing their education through travel o Spa towns, peak visitation during 1800s o Travel for health reasons  Transportation era (1830-1914) o Transportation infrastructure  Railways and steamships transformed travel  First railway opens in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester o Growth in population and wealth creates market for travel o Beginnings of mass travel  Emergence of tour operators e.g. Thomas Cook  1841 offered first tour packages o Transatlantic travel began in the 1860s  Americans go to Europe for ‘Grand Tour’ for educational reasons  Interwar Period (1918-1939) o WWI legacy o Increased investment in transportation  Aviation  Age of ‘motor car’ o Collective right for workers  Introduction of ‘holidays with pay’  Mass Travel (1945-Present) o Post WWII  acceleration in wealth and disposable income o Decreasing transport costs: air travel supports mass international travel o Mass car ownership and highway building (supports domestic tourism) o Rise in business travel o Specialist demands, more sophisticated consumer market o Rise of developing country destinations Global Tourism Industry – Statistics and Trends  Would Tourism Organization (  Compile rather than collect  Problems with statistics o Different collectors o Measure different things o Different motives for collecting data o Standardization problems Tourism Statistics  What is measured? o Tourist arrivals – number of arrivals at the frontier of a country (border, points of entry)  This is number of times someone arrives in country, not number of people (single person traveling into country 20 times in a year counts as 20 arrivals) o Tourism receipts – money generated from tourism, excluding international transport  Inbound Tourism 1990-2009 o 51% - leisure, recreation, holidays o 27% - visiting friends and relatives, health, religion o 15% - business o 7% - not specified Arrivals and Receipts  Key characteristic of tourism industry is GROWTH  Problems with statistics o Arrivals count arrivals, not people (i.e. return visits are counted – misleading) o Receipts are measured in US$ (fluctuating exchange rates) The Global Tourism Industry  Total worldwide income generated by tourism > US$ 1 trillion in 2009  Ranks fourth globally in exports (after fuels, chemicals, automotive products)  Contributions 5% of worldwide gross domestic product (GDP)  Contributes 6-7% of jobs worldwide Top Destinations - Arrivals 1. France 6. UK 2. US 7. Turkey 3. Spain 8. Germany 4. China 9. Malaysia 5. Italy 10.Mexico Top Destinations – Tourism Receipts 1. US 2. Spain 3. France 4. Italy 5. China 6. Germany 7. UK 8. Australia 9. Turkey 10.Austria Destination Statistics  Arrivals do NOT equal receipts o Value of dollar o Expense of destination  Destination and receipt market is dominated by a few countries  Primary beneficiary of tourism dollars are developed countries Spending Statistics  Top tourism spenders from developed countries o Tourism as elite activity  Market dominated by a few countries o Implications for marketing trends  Problems with statistics o Exchange rates o Population size (see spending/person) o Destinations within countries? Developing Countries  Importance of tourism to developing country economies (dependence)  Changing destination preferences (diversification) o Growth in tourism fastest in developing regions o 32% of tourist arrivals in 1990 o 47% of tourist arrivals in 2009  Balance of payments in favor of developing countries  New forms of tourism in developing word  rapid growth, claims of sustainability Geographical Imagination  What is geographical imagination? o Process through which we understand the world and represent it to ourselves and others (M&M, text, 6-7)  Application to Tourism? o Geographical imagination shaped by travel brochures, news reports, travel programs o Western imaginations are often incomplete or very different from local imaginings Globalization  What is globalization? o Increasingly rapid movement (people, money, ideas) through time and space, increasing connections o Time-space compression (p12-14)  Application to Tourism? o Global tourism – increasingly able to travel long distance in short time o Global communication 0 flow of information about places, cultures o Merging of cultures, values, currency Why Use Geographical Concepts?  Critical analysis of tourism o How to do tourism (best practies) vs. what does tourism do? (critical analysis) o Concepts facilitate critical analysis o In addition, M&M focus on power relations, uneven development Is Tourism an Industry?  Contribution to GDP and employment  BUT o Not single, identifiable product o Many services not used exclusively by tourists (e.g. transportation, restaurants) o ‘Production’ not spatially concentrated Geographical Models of Tourism  System models o Broad set of inputs and outputs o Allows for social inputs (9/11, economical collapse in 2008)  Origin destination o Emphasize the movement of people o Scales of movement  Between cities  Between countries  Between world regions o Thurot (1980) looks at movement between countries  Shows importance of demand and of individual places in meeting it  Shows one way travel to developing countries  Structural o Used to analyze international tourism to developing countries and how this is dictated by political-economic structures  Tourist need money & time to travel: USA, Europe vs. developing countries o Not just the flows, but why the flows occur o Britton’s (1981) core-periphery model  Core periphery not new (development theory – coming soon)  Britton looks at flows as well as why they occur  Demand from urban centers  Multinational corporations determine where demand is channeled o Most of money spent on trips to developing countries goes to company sending you, not actual workers  Evolutionary o Look at the way in which tourist areas evolve or develop o Butler’s life cycle: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, decline/rejuvenation o Exploration  Small number of tourist attracted by culture/natural beauty  Limited umbers  Few facilities exist o Involvement  Some involvement by locals to provide tourists with facilities  Recognizable tourist season  Developing tourism market o Development  Large numbers of tourist  Control of market moves from locals to outsiders (e.g. trans- national corporations – hotel chains, etc)  Conflicts between residents and tourists o Consolidation  Tourism constitutes major part of economy  Tourist numbers plateau  Older facilities seen as ‘second rate’ o Stagnation  Peak visitation reached  Resort has recognizable image but is no longer fashionable o Decline or Rejuvenation  Attractiveness continues to decline  Visitors lost to other resorts /destinations  Resort becomes dependant on day/weekend visitors from limited geographical area  Unless efforts made to modernize and rejuvenate resort will continues to decline o Butler’s (1980) Tourist Area Life-Cycle Concept  Widely cited (1500+ citations)  Suited to case study analysis – empirically tested  Links evolution to types of tourists visiting  Some tourists are adventurous while others prefer the ‘known’  Level of local involvement changes from stage to stage o Critiques of Butler  Descriptive rather than predictive  Cannot explain fluctuations in visitor numbers  Implications of ‘new tourism’ for product life cycle? o Opperman’s (1993) Model of Tourist Space in Developing Countries  Phase 0 (pre tourism)  infrastructure in a hypothetical developing country  Phase 1  adventurers adjust to available services (buses, etc); small economic impact but stays in region  Phase 2  More supply in capital  Adventurers explore more of country  Formal tourism sector ‘discovers’ country  No new places being build for new tourists yet  Phase 3  informal sector expands; formal sector moves beyond capital; increasing involvement of local elites (people within country with money investing in tourism)  Phase 4  formal sector continues to expand, including in new ‘resort’ enclave destinations  Phase 5  stable spatial distribution; both formal and informal sectors well established; non-tourist space remains o Looking at Opperman’s model  Shows evolution of tourism industry for developing countries  Onus on ‘explorers’ to ‘open up’ new areas  ‘If you build it, they will come’ – if infrastructure there tourists will come  Investment follows tourists  Implications for ‘new tourism’? What do these models have in common?  Flows and movement of people  Change in infrastructure to follow flow  Stages of development linked to types of tourists  All of them may need rethinking in terms of ‘new tourism’ Critiques of the Models  Over-emphasize the role of the individual (tourist)  Under-emphasize of role of government and private industry actors  Political economy absent o Fail to account for distribution of power 20 Century Context for Increasing Mass Tourism  Collective rights for workers o ‘Holidays with pay’ and increasing leisure time  Transportation technology (air & land)  International peace (with exceptions)  Higher incomes  Broader tourism consciousness o Increasing awareness of destinations and travel opportunities  Economies of scale  increased demand, decreased cost Phases of Mass Touri
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