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Chapter 6

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University of Guelph
GEOG 3490

GEOG 3490 – Tourism and Environment Chapter 6: Sustainability and Tourism Summary The Origins of ‘sustainable development’ • The term sustainable development’ can be traced back to the conservation movements of the mid- th 19 century • Established as a policy consideration on the World Conservation Strategy published by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 1980 • Term gains greater attention and popularity after the publication of the Brundtland Report (1987) • The ‘Earth Summit’ 1992 held in Rio de Janeiro adopts ‘Agenda 21’, aimed at promoting sustainable development through the world • Tourism is recognized as an economic sector that needs to develop sustainably at ‘Earth Summit II’ in 1997 in New York Sustainability of Tourism types Compatible with sustainable tourism Incompatible with sustainable tourism Ecotourism mass market tourism Cultural tourism Activity holidays; e.g skiing Urban attractions using derelict sites Sex tourism Small-scale agri-tourism Hunting and finishing holidays Conservation holidays where tourists do work Visiting fragile environments; e.g rainforests The meaning of sustainable development • in 1987 definition of ‘sustainable development’ from the Brundtland Report o sustainable development a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are made consistent with future as well as present needs • important to realize: o sustainable development is not concerned with the preservation of the physical environment but with its development based upon sustainable principles Different perspectives on Sustainable Development • Two broad ideological approaches to the environment are technocentrism and ecocentrism o Technocentrism – the belief that technical solutions can be found to environmental problems through the application of science, placing its faith in quantifiable solutions to problems o Ecocentrism – closely associated with the philosophies of the romantic transcendentalists and characterised by a belief in the wonderment of nature.  lack of faith in both modern technology and technical and bureaucratic elites, and advocate alternative technologies as a way forward  they are not opposed to new technology but are opposed to technology that places its ownership and control in the hands of a powerful elite *****See pg. 154 of text to see Doyle and McEachern (1998) equate the term ‘ecocentrism’ with ‘deep ecology’, and its four main premises Box 6.2 on pg. 155 of text Different approaches to Development between ‘Dominant World- View’ and Deep Ecology Dominant World –view Deep ecology • Strong belief in technology for Favours low-scales technology that is progress and solutions self-reliant • Natural world is valued as a Sense of wonder, reverence and moral resource rather than possessing obligation vis-a-vis the natural world intrinsic value • Belief in ample resource Recognises the ‘rights’ of nature are independent of humans • Favours the objective and quantitive Recognises the subjective such as feelings and ethics • Centralisation of power Favours local communities and localised decision making • Encourages consumerism • Encourages the use of appropriate technology Recognises that the earth’s resources are limited - Range of contrasting positions can b
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