12:30 pm: absolutism as a political ideology. "divine right of kings" by bishop bousset i 1709 (and earlier by robert filmer and h]hames i (1603-25 etc. ) Desire for strong central monarchy an outcome of thirty years war. Absolute kingship, king wields exclusive power- power comes form god. Kingship was a mix of the christian tradition, classical tradition, germanic tradition. Fear of political instability -> revocation of religious freedom. Charles i (england) -> book of common prayer. Tsar alexei (russia) -> persecution of old believers. Louis xiv (france) -> revokes edict of nantes: relationship of absolutism to taxation. Seeking contextualization of political decision making into their own hands. Wanted/needed control of military resources which were becoming more costly each decade. After 1648 a number of rulers saw the need for permanent forces, wanted to sideline the nobles and pay for these forces themselves. Middle of 17th century the development of standing armies.