Agricultural and industrial change in the 18th century. 1800 rise in population therefore rise in food production, one of the undercurrents that explains social and industrial change throughout this period. Before any these changes can occur society needs to create more food. Europe became much less vulnerable to crop failure. To people living in early modern time period price of grain incredibly important therefore crop failures could = disaster. Series of changes to agricultural practice - started in england in low countries and spread throughout europe: agricultural development. Three field system- one with wheat, one barley, one be empty (fallow) so nutrients could be restored. Common lands for pasture and foraging livestock. New four field system- no need to let land lay fallow - wheat, barley, turnips, grasses- under this system live stock can be maintained - land always growing something of value. Fertility of soil always improving increase yields of livestock and grain crops.