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Lecture

Hist07 Encountering a New World.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept.  27,  2012   The  Early  Modern  World   Explorations/Exploitations  of  the  World   Encountering  a  “New  World”   Leif  Ericson  (Leif  Eiriksson)   • Vinland  –  around  year  1000   • Evidence:  Found  a  settlement  in  L’Anse  aux  Meadows   o Established  a  colony,  but  left  quite  soon,  990-­‐1050   Did  educated  Europeans  in  the  Middle  Ages  believe  that  the  world  was  flat?     No   Video   th • Fact  the  world  was  flat  made  up  in  the  19  century,  Washington  Irving   • People  in  the  middle  ages  wrote  about  the  world  being  round   • Mappi  –  a  clock,  to  help  understand  God,  not  a  map   Maps   • Medieval  maps  highly  symbolic,  not  meant  to  be  practical   • 14  and  15  century,  navigational  maps,  practical  tools   o New  and  improved  maps  to  explore  the  world   o The  more  they  travelled,  the  more  accurate  the  maps  were   o Lines  to  mark  latitude  and  longitude   • Interested  in  exploring  the  world,  not  just  in  God   o Curiosity  and  Interest    Tales  of  Marco  Polo   • Improvements  in  ship  making   o Caravel,  ships  that  would  sail  the  seas   o Different  sails  for  different  winds   1. Improvement  in  mapmaking   2. Curiosity  to  discover  the  world   3. Technological  improvements   4. Money   • To  Find  sponsors   • And  to  earn  money  (find  gold  or  through  trade)   Portugal   • 14  and  15  centuries   • Would  lead  these  explorations   • Wanted  gold   • The  Rise  of  the  Ottoman  empire  blocked  the  route  to  Asia  and  blocked   trading  in  Africa  (Northern)   o Wanted  to  find  a  way  to  get  directly  to  these  gold  mines  in  Africa   • Atlantic  Islands   o Maderia   o Canaries   o Azores   • 15  century,  would  use  these  islands  as  ports     1415   • Captured  the  Muslim  port  Ceuta,  would  take  them  further  down  the  coast  of   Africa   Prince  Henry  the  Navigator  (1394-­‐1460)   • Younger  son  of  the  King,  becomes  an  explorer  and  adventurer   • Export  gold  and  slaves   o Serfdom  ended  in  Europe  in  15  century  =  increase  in  slavery   o Household  slaves,  domestic  laborers   1440’s,  Madeira   • Largely  uninhabited,  introduced  sugar  cane   o Work  intensive   o Portuguese  moved  Africans  to  Madeira  to  work  in  the  sugar  fields    Large  scale,  harsh  conditions   • Plantation  production,  not  seen  in  Europe  since  ancient  Rome,  revival     o Would  ultimately  change  the  world  forever   o Cruelest  aspects  of  W.  History  in  “new  world”   • Explore  Africa   1487,  Bartholomeu  Dias   • Cape  of  Good  Hope   1497,  Vasco  de  Gama   • Managed  to  travel  around  Africa,  reached  India   • Filled  cargo  with  spices,  returned  to  Lisbon  in  1499   • The  beginning  of  Portuguese  presence  in  this  area,  would  hold  onto  colony   until  1960   • Trading  post  empire   o Controlled  trade  instead  of  colonizing  area   o Established  fortified  naval  bases   o Controlled  the  trade  with  bases  al  around  Africa  and  India   o Local  traders  found  it  easier  to  collaborate  with  the  Portuguese   Spain,  “Enterprise  of  the  Indies”   • Decided  to  go  West  to  India  instead  of  East   o Not  sure  if  ships  were  able  to  travel  that  far   o Not  sure  how  far  it  actually  was  to  reach  Asia  from  the  West   Christopher  Columbus   • From  Genoa,  Italy   • Put  service  to  Spain,  Isabella  and  Ferdinand  of  Spain   • Convinced  shorter  way  to  go  west,  (Japan  where  the  Virgin  Islands  are)   • Convinced  Isabella  and  Ferdinand  to  pay  for  thi
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