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Lecture

Hist08 The Reformation.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct.  2,  2012   Early  Modern  Europe   The  Reformation   Avignon  Papacy  (1309-­‐1378)   • Pope  moved  from  Rome  to  Avignon,  undermined  authority  of  the  church   o What  is  he  doing  in  Avignon?   The  Great  Schism  (1378-­‐1417)   • Two  popes,  Avignon  and  Rome   • Set  a  council  to  depose  both  popes,  elect  new  one   o Refused  to  resign,  3  popes   Council  of  Constance  (1414-­‐1418)   • Damaged  papacy,  decreased  faith  in  church  as  an  institution   • Solved  the  problem  of  the  popes  though   Corruption  of  the  Church   • Simony,  selling  of  church  offices   • Married  priests  or  openly  have  concubine   o Supposed  to  be  pure   • Criticism  of  the  church   John  Wycliffe  (1330-­‐1384)   Believed  that:   • Priests  needed  to  be  worthy   o Useless,  married/baptized,  it  would  be  useless   • Jesus  present  only  in  spirit  -­‐>  Eucharist     o In  the  bread  and  the  wine,  symbolically  there  in  spirit,  not  there   physically   • Indulgences  were  useless   • Encouraged  people  to  read  the  bible   o Wanted  to  return  to  a  pure,  genuine  church   • Translated  Latin  bible  to  English   Lollards   • Radical   • Deemed  heretical,  persecuted  in  the  early  15  century   • Pre-­‐Reformation  movement   • Wycliffes  beliefs  spread  across  Europe  -­‐>  Bohemia   o King  Richard  II,  married  to  Anne  of  Bohemia   Bohemia   • Present  day  Czech  Republic   • In  the  Holy  Roman  Empire   • Nationalist  feelings   • Mini-­‐nation-­‐states   Jan  Hus  (1373-­‐1415)   • University  of  Prague   o Battleground  between  nationalists  and  Germans   • Heretical   • When  asked  to  Council  of  Constance,  Holy  Roman  Empire  wanted  to  make  a   case  with  Jan  Hus,  to  use  as  an  example,  but  guaranteed  safety  of  Jan  Hus   o Tried  convicted,  burned  at  the  stake,  1415   • Hussites  multiplied,  saw  Jan  Hus  as  a  martyr     Hussites   • Result  of  increased  criticism  of  the  church,  the  corruption  of  the  church   Lay  Piety   • More  religious,  not  less   • Pious  women  and  men,  established  outside  institutions   • Beguines   o Group  of  women  living  together  in  a  religious  community    No  formal  vows,  didn’t  promise  to  be  virgins  or  obey  a  priest    Outside  church  authority,  considered  a  threat    Own  faith,  own  ways   Christian  Humanism   • Employ  Renaissance  ideas,  and  apply  them  to  the  service  of  Christianity   o Studied  and  published  religious  texts   o Translated  religious  texts   • Education  -­‐>  better  Christians   o Moral  and  religious  reform   Thomas  More  (1478-­‐1535)   • Henry  VIII’s  advisors,  beginning,  close  to  the  King   • Devout  Catholic,  supported  education  for  both  girls  and  boys   • Utopia  (1516)   o Social  critique,  wanted  a  better  world,  genuine  state  and  genuine   church  to  make  them  better  Christians   Erasmus  of  Rotterdam  (1466-­‐1536)   • Symbol  of  education,  learning  and  travelling   • “Prince  of  Humanists”   • Biblical  criticism   • Freedom  of  the  will,  we  have  a  choice  of  what  we  want  to  do   • Advocate  for  religious  tolerance   Indulgences   • Sold  as  a  way  to  do  penance,  bought  indulgences  instead  of  penance   • Repent  of  sins,  shorter  time  in  purgatory   • Huge  income  for  the  papacy,  money  were  meant  to  use  for  the  poor,  but  used   for  different  things   Pope  Leo  X   • Wanted  to  rebuild  St.  Peter’s  Basilica  in  Rome   • Johann  Tetzel  -­‐>  to  preach  and  sell  indulgences   • Money  to  re-­‐build   Martin  Luther  (1483-­‐1546)   • 95  Theses  upon  Church  door  in  Wittenberg   o Arguments  against  the  use  of  indulgences,  quarrel  between  monks  
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