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Lecture

Hist10 Europe at War.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct.  9,  2012   The  Early  Modern  World   Europe  at  War   • French  wars  of  religion   • Wars  between  Spain  and  Netherlands   Hundred  Years  War  (1337-­‐1453)   • War  between  England  and  France   • Civil  war  for  both  countries   Wars  of  Italy  (1494-­‐1529)   • Sforza,  Duke  of  Milan  asked  against  help  against  Venice  and  other  city  states   • Charles  VIII  of  France,  would  conquer  the  city  states  one  by  one   • Venice  and  Papal  States  called  Spanish  and  Holy  Roman  Emperor  to  help,   Italy  a  battleground  for  European  states   Hapsburg-­‐  Valois  Wars  (1496-­‐1559)   Hapsburgs  dynasty-­‐  Holy  Roman  Emperor   • Charles  V,  noble  intermarried,  one  person  can  be  the  heir  of  more  than  one   country/duchy   • 1506-­‐duke  of  Burgundy   • 1526-­‐  king  of  Spain   • 1519-­‐  elected  Holy  Roman  Empire   Valois   • French  king   th• Francis  I   15  century   • Henry  VIII   • Charles  V   • Francis  I   • Personal  character  of  warfare,  the  honor  of  the  king,  country  and  extension   of  himself     • Three  attempted  to  make  alliances   • Henry  VIII  and  Francois  I  met  on  French  territory   Did  the  King’s  Actually  Wrestle?     Yes  they  did,  Henry  did  lose   • Wars  of  these  three  kings  primarily  set  in  Italy   • French  and  Spanish  king  divided  Naples,  quarreled,  very  expensive     o Filed  for  bankruptcy   Treaty  of  Cateau-­‐Cambresis,  1559   o Spain’s  Golden  Age,  even  if  they  went  bankrupt   • Philip  of  Spain   • Henry  II  of  France  crowned  for  the  throne   • “One  king,  one  faith,  one  law”   • Both  religious  and  political  wars   • Last  remnant  of  medieval  structure  of  Europe   • Central  power  vs.  towns,  nobles,  and  provinces  (fragmentize)   French  Wars  of  Religion  (1562-­‐1598)   • Henry  II  of  France,  (r.  1547-­‐1559)   • Sealed  Spain’s  supremacy   • Henry  II  celebrated  like  it  was  his  victory,  died  in  a  tournament   • Married  to  Catherine  de  Medici   o Several  sons  and  daughters,  three  of  them  would  succeed  Henry  II   Francis  II  (r.  1559-­‐1560)   • Only  15  when  his  father  died   • Mother  has  a  lot  of  influence,  also  gave  Guises  a  lot  of  power   • Married  to  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots   • House  of  Guise   o Strong,  local  noble  family,  Catholic   • Died  of  sickness   • Succeed  by  Charles  IX-­‐  Catherine  de  Medici  controlled   What  were  the  French  Protestants  called  and  what  branch  of  Protestantism  did  they   belong  to?     Huguenots-­‐  Calvinists   Huguenots-­‐  French  Protestants   • 1560’s,  increased  substantially,  1  million  to  1.5  million   • Calvinists   o Urban  dwellers  rather  then  farmers  of  peasants,  middle  upper  class   o Predestination   o Hard-­‐working  individual-­‐  more  likely  to  go  to  heaven   • Noble  families  converted  to  Calvinism   • The  Bourbons   • Catherine  de  Medici  accepted  Calvinism  only  if  they  were  too  distinct   o Trying  to  create  a  power  balance  between  Catholics  and  Bourbons,   trying  to  keep  them  at  a  distance,  monarchy  above  both  of  these   • Not  only  for  religion,  but  for  the  fight  for  power  between  noble  groups   • Both  sides  raising  armies   March  1562   • Catholics  supported  Spain   • Huguenots  got  support  by  Swiss  and  German  mercenaries,  support  secretly   from  England,  weren’t  weak  enough  to  be  defeated  fully,  survived   • Protestants  largely  outnumbered,  Catholics  won  all  major  battles   • Both  sides  used  assassinations,  targeting  certain  important  people   Margaret  of  Valois   • Catherine  de  Medici  arranged  a  marriage  of  her  daughter  Margaret  of  Valois   to  Henry  of  Navarre   • Henry  of  Navarre   o Bourbon   o Margaret  Catholic,  Henry  Protestant   • Catherine  tied  the  Huguenots  to  the  monarchy,  Catholics  would  not  accept   the  marriage   • Paris  in  August  1572,  asking  for  trouble,  Paris  largely  Cat
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