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Lecture

Hist15 The Scientific Revolution.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Nov. 1, 2012 The Early Modern World The Scientific Revolution Jean-Baptiste Colbert would not: Encourage Import The Scientific Revolution Descartes and Queen Christina of Sweden, 1649 • One year after the war • Science lesson at the court • Queen Christina patron of the science and arts • Descartes studied matter and tried to reconcile his faith with science o Possibly why Christina wanted him to come o Christina abdicated to Catholicism • Descartes died of pneumonia o Wasn’t given a proper burial o Catholic in a Protestant country • Science connected o Swedish King and Catholic Philosopher = pan European o Involving researchers and explorers from all parts • Scientific Revolution did not take place at the universities o Not the sight were they developed their ideas o Universities conservative and didn’t fit into new thinking of this time th th Scientific Revolution, 16 -18 centuries • Took place in small steps involving a lot of different people • Different scholars took part in what other scholars had thought of • Printing press- spreading ideas o Expand and criticize • Changed thinking of the world and how we see ourselves • Within astronomy- most dramatic changes happened • Explanations for how the world functioned o Lasted for centuries o Geocentric- the earth is the centre of the universe • Planet- in Greek means wanderer Ptolemy (90-168) • Mathematical explanations of the planets very complex • Could not create a theoretical model of the planets Aristotle • Planets made of different materials explaining why they moved in different ways • Dominant view in Medieval Europe and Christian Ideas • Heavenly bodies- perfect places where the angels lived A New World • The Renaissance o Discovery of ancient text- Ptolemy’s writings o Thought idea was transmitted incorrectly, and model didn’t correspond to the movement of the planets • Put hope and authority into classical texts • Curiosity and will to discover the world and what was around us • Long distance travels o The “discovery” of the Americas • Undermined the authority of the ancient thinkers after the discovery of the Americas o New mind frame- we can discover new things, and not just get them from older thinkers, new thinking in our era o Discovered many new different things in the Americas, flora and fauna  Possible to see and find new things o Calendar  Wanted to establish a reliable calendar Copernicus (1473-1542) • Universities pan –European, not situated in one location, around Europe • Worked for the church, and asked to help create a calendar o Astronomical observations • On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies, 1543 o Proposed that the earth moved around the sun  Knew would be controversial o Claimed that it was only a theoretical model, not a mathematical model o Didn’t believe it was actually real o Claimed it was just theory • Today scholars think he actually believed that the earth moved around the sun • Model not perfect (scientific revolution taken in small steps) • Planets moved in perfect circles • Data gathered from observations didn’t fit his model, couldn’t prove the earth moved around the sun • Suggested the possibility that maybe Earth wasn’t the centre of the universe o Other scholars believed this was true th • Heliocentric View, end of 17 century, most people believed that the earth circled around the sun Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • Very rich nobleman popular with the King o Gave him an observatory • Contributed data, collected facts of the stars and planets movement, mathematical charts • Believed the planets circled around the sun but claimed the earth remained still • It would be his data that would be of use to Kepler Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • Mathematical model that corresponds to Brahe’s model • Introduced Laws of Planetary Motion (still used today) o Not perfect circles, elliptical ones • Data corresponded much better with the movement of the planets they saw • First mathematical model that confirmed Copernicus’ idea Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Famous for his astronomical findings • Turned the telescope into an instrument to use the stars o Moons revolving around Jupiter o Everything didn’t circle around the sun • Saw ravines and mountains on the sun o The heavenly bodies imperfect The Moon’s Imperfections • O
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