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Hist18 18th Century Europe and Society.pdf

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Nov. 13, 2012 Early Modern World 18 Century Europe and Society Background to the Enlightenment Geopolitical • England and France, Austria, Prussia and Russia o Tilt towards the east England, “Great Britain” • 1707- England and Scotland formally united -> “Great Britain” • Civil war 1640s, 1688 “The Glorious Revolution” o Deposed James II, William of Orange and Mary o Mary is Protestant, and Anne (who replaces Mary) was Protestant • England a constitutional monarchy o Governed by the king and parliament o Very strong parliament • Parliament o House of Lords and House of commons • House of Lords o Highest aristocracy • House of Commons • Representatives, wealthy landowners (property requirements for the right to vote) • George I -> new Protestant ruler after Anne o Descendant of Mary Stuart, George a German (Prince of Hanover) and a foreginer o Georgian Era (after George I, II, III, IV) Political Parties • Tories (supported James II heirs) o Tended to be Anglican o “Irish Cattlerusher?/ Outlaw” • Whigs o Scottish term fro “horse--?” o Support George I • Whigs would be the most powerful of the two groups • Monarchy of England dependent of the Whigs- their support • Prime Minister o Robert Walpole (1676-1745) • George I o Didn’t have a strong position- Tories quite opposed to him- needed Whigs support o Didn’t speak English very well- Walpole translated • Privy Council o Various ministers with different functions • Political life in England developed and matured • Various different functions and division of power France • Development of an absolute monarchy • Strong united state with no religious divisions o Revoked Edict of Nantes in 1605 • Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon o Same thing going on but in a later time • Rigid political system • Because of the rigid political system, new ideas would form in contrastwith that • Louis XIV – taming of the nobles o Aristocrats defended their privileges • Created tensions in society • Government in France had a huge debt o Due to many foreign wars under Louis XIV • Louis XV tried to control the system- failed • Louis XVI tried to control as well- revolution (tensions in society) Austria, Prussia and Russia • Absolute regimes • Monarchs called themselves and saw themselves as enlightened dispends (?) What was the name of the greatest empress of Russia? Catherine the Great of Russia What was Prussia known for? Its army- discipline- forcibly took mercenaries to join the army Nobles • Divided into several groups: o High nobility -> (grandes, the peers)  Centered around the King, spoke French (cultural center at the time), superior to others Country (Low) Nobility -> (gentry)  Would work the policies in government  Bourgeoisie • The Bourgeoisie o Located in both cities and countryside o Urban phenomenon –as well as the enlightenment o Focus upon family, home, work, and saving money  Work ethic and thrift o Protestant work ethic- linked to rights of capitalism o Catholic middle class would share the same values o Saw selves as separate from the nobility  Nobles lazy, lived on their wealth, parasites Public and Private Spheres • Increasing separation • New ideas, husband and wife joined in love and not by economic necessities • Bourgeoisie dived work at home o Gendered- even more pronounced o Women have always helped out- duties more separate- new ideals for this- men responsible for work, women responsible for home • Passive and active spheres • Symbol of wealth to have a wife working and servants to do the job for her • Emphasized in dress o Dresses not mobile o Passive by dress, couldn’t move as well as they could before • “Women does not need a proper education, women were made to please men, a women’s training should encompass virtue, home and purity” o Bourgeoisie ideals • Growing economy of coffee and chocolate o Coffee houses- public houses where men met and discussed news  Read the newspapers, discuss news, literacy spiked, people reading more and more  Cultu
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