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Hist22 The Industrial Revolution.pdf

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Nov. 27, 2012 The Early Modern World The Industrial Revolution What did not characterize transatlantic trade? Manufactured goods did not go to the colonies Witch crazes- cannot be explained by: A general belief in good and bad magic- satanic definition of witchcraft Agricultural Revolution • 17 century in Holland, the Low Countries • Increasing population, limited land- forced to find new methods of cultivation o Drained the land (low land), to increase surface area of land to grow on • Experiments upon new crops- spread to Britain- most impact o Would change developments • Crop rotation o Grew turnips ad clover- limit the time of the land- could use continually o Could provide food for livestock- increased livestock in general- oxen could be sued for work • Enclosure o Wealthy landowners took the meadows everybody had the right to use and closed them to use for agriculture- consolidation of land o Instead of dispersed plots of land- collected them- bigger fields to use more efficiently (larger fields used by wealthy landowners- smaller peasants lost land and right to the common (meadows)- revolts across countryside) Commercialization of Agriculture • Moving away from systematic economy • Can make a profit out of agriculture • Affected different parts of Europe differently o Holland and Britain leaders in agricultural revolution o Prussia, Austria, Poland, and Russia- not successful • Increase of population- consequences should not be underestimated • Produced a pool of labors- workers that could be used for other things- work in industry • Migration- countryside to the cities • Increased demand for goods • Consumer Revolution • Demand for everyday goods Textile Production • Direct response to consumer demand o Demand for cotton but also cotton clothes o Earliest industrialization in countryside- not the city • Cottage Industry o Produced in the cottages in the countryside o Way to use the time when season for agriculture is low- when there was time to do this work o People had less money- way to increase income • Developed into the putting-out system o Involved an entrepreneur o Provided raw material, and owned machines that he lent to peasants o Household economy, all members of family involved in production (husband, wife, and children) • Demand for clothing bigger than what they could produce- developments to increase productivity • John Kay- flying shuttle, 1733 o Increase productivity of the weavers o Enabled to send yearn through automatically o Allowed for far more clothes to be weaved • Bottleneck effect in textile production- not enough thread for them to produce cloth • James Hargreaves- Spinning Jenny 1765 • Machines in the cottages, used by one person • Richard Arkwright- water frame 1769
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