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HIST 1010 Sept 27 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

HIST 1010 Tuesday, September 27, 2011 The Dynamic of Early Modern European Expansion: P1 Clicker Q 1 Q. What is “[ana]chronism”? > Ana: Out of; none of, Chronis: Time A. “Out of time” Ptolemaic Map o 13 century o Greek geographers able to estimate that the earth was some 20,000 stadia (1 stadia: about 600 Greek ft. long) in circumference I. Europeans aware of E Asian civilizations in spatial relation. A. Educated Europeans acknowledged sphericity of world 1. Ancient Greek measurements accurate 2. Sea-fares confirmed curvature of earth’s surface II. Mongol attacks on Europe up to 1241 triggered curiosity and spurred diplomatic offensives. o 1200+ o Wave after wave of incursions into W – famous Mongol attacks o 1250 – Bagdad completely destroyed by Mongols o Collected ears of dead to count casualties that their armies had made o Changes in Europe’s approach to the world > Diplomacy – talk to Mongols III. By mid-13 century, Mongol conquests had created pan-Eurasian zone, making possible travel and exchange between E and W. o By 1250 Eurasia is Mongol space o Well developed transportation (based on horse power) o Trade from E>W o Silk road – route from China, across deserts into Mediterranean world by camel/horse Nicollo and Maffeo Polo o Travelled to China – 1260’s o Active as traders – brining porcelain, spices, clocks, gunpowder, foodstuffs (noodles) o Knowledge of E spread to W II. Later medieval Europe isolated from Asia by ascendant Islam. o Mediterranean = Islamic lake A. Conquests by the descendants of Mohammed B. Islamization
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