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HIST 1010 Oct 20 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

HIST 1010 Thursday, October 20, 2011 Crisis, and end of Empires: Europe after 1555 Clicker Question Which is the most likely scenario for climate change 1000-2100 a.d.? A. Warming to 1200, then cooling to 1700, then steady warming B. Accelerating warming from 1450 onwards C. Stable average temperature until Industrial Revolution c. 1800, when temperatures began to rise. I. Climate change 1450-1700: Global cooling and resulting decline in agricultural production o Implications for agriculture in particular o Glaciers reached maximum extent in 1640s o Poor agricultural productivity was exacerbated by low levels of capitalization and innovation o The City and the Country-side’s economic fortunes diverged Agricultural Revolution o Get rid of small plots and replace them with large fields o Common land – share some land in common with community o Enclosure o Privatizing common lands and removing markers that have previously separated lands o Techniques of genetic modification; climate change Peasants (Country-side) Urban Elites (City) Fragmented land-holding Concentration of wealth (through hypergamy) – populate at highest level of society by marrying upwards Face rising rents & taxes – price of land goePursue landlordism – Ex. Michel de Montaigne = up; price of rent goes up as result locality – what makes him noble Face declining yields prices Benefit from rising Taxes increase offices – steady rise; direct Benefit from purchase of royal offices taxes, indirect taxes, income tax (venality), which confer tax - selling of office Exemption lack capital for investment Use capital to acquire land use “Monetary famine” Mastery of credit o Gresham’s Law – “Bad money draws out good” II. Europe politically, religio
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