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HIST 1010 Nov 1 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

HIST 1080 Tuesday, November 1, 2011 Clicker Q Where does the name “Guelph” come from? A. House of Welf – supporting Pope; named after family; Russia in Early Modern History: East or West? A comparison of Russian political and social evolution with that of Western Europe I. State formation A. In West, long-established states Less effective of asserting control (esp. in Western regions) B. In Central-west Asia, Mongol overlordship ends in 1480; region was still known as Tatary, “Tatar”, reflecting long connection with central Asian political dynamic Land of Tartars – Mongol name for Western element of their land mass; (OED definition of Tatar) A. n.2 1. A native inhabitant of the region of Central Asia extending eastward from the Caspian Sea, and formerly known as Independent and Chinese Tartary. First known in the West as applied to the mingled host of Mongols, Tartars, Turks, etc., which under the leadership of Jenghiz Khan (1202-1227) overran and devastated much of Asia and Eastern Europe; hence vaguely applied to the descendants of these now dwelling in Asia or Europe; more strictly and ethnologically, to any member of the Tâtar or Turkic branch of the Ural-Altaic or Turanian family, embracing the Turks, Cossacks, and Kirghiz Tartars. (In all these uses, but esp. the last, now often written Tatar, Tâtar.) Distinctive medieval mass of central Asian peoples II. Origins A. Russian state coalesced beginning in 1300s as Mongol client state known as Muscovy Russian state has origins around Moscow; core of Russian state – known as Muscovy B. Much of the population nomadic Highly nomadic/unstable nature of population a. Migration into northern forests Over time, we see steady movement of population to N (extensive forested area); clearing of forests and expansion further and further into forests – encouraged to move here due to global warming; move towards security b. Transhumance (herding) and raiding on steppes Problem with S: open country; plain; lead to nomadic lifestyles (herding) Cossacks Horseback warrio- the steppe dwellers. The OED definition: - Key piece of Russian military; distinctive element of Russian state/population a. Turk quzz q adventurer, guerilla. ‘In India it became common in sense of predatory horseman, freebooter’ (Yule). …Khazakstan – Homeland of Cossacks III. Political structure A. In the west, monarchies restricted by constitutions, parliaments (Diets; Cortes; Estates-General, etc) With coalescence of national languages, we see relative stability of population; long standing representative bodies – mediation point between subjects and clergy B. In Russia, the Tsar was unconstrained by a constitution, and acted as Despot. OED: 1. Hist. A word which, in its Greek form, meant ‘master’ or ‘lord’ (e.g. of a household, of slaves), and was applied to a deity, and to the absolute ruler of a non-free people; in Byzantine times it was used of the Emperor, and, as representing Lat. magister, in various official titles, also as a form of address (= domine my lord) Mongol emperor was a despot - no representative challenge to the ruler; Sov. – absolute ruler, emperor 1. Ivan III, Grand prince of Muscovy from 1462, broke free of Mongol rule 1480 Rulers of Muscovy had background of clients of state; a. Promoted Moscow as “Third Rome” (following the 1453 fall of Orthodox centre Constantinople, to the Turks) 2. Ivan IV (4)(r. 1533-1584) ruled with great brutality (i.e. “Terrible”) Ivan the Terrible – Why called “the Terrible’? Bloody approach to ruling; unconstrained ruler; brutality against nobles who contradicted/questioned him in any way
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