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HIST 1010 Nov 22 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Tuesday, November 22, 2011 th Being a Philosophe (Or: “Enlightened”) in the 18 -Century World Clicker Q 1 Which of the following was the most important site for new knowledge in the early modern period? > Knowledge production changes over time; salon + academy – popularization/dissemination of new knowledge a) University – starting in 19 century; establishing self in center of social mobility/advancement b) Salon – semi-public gathering where people would meet to discuss ideas; patronized by noblemen/noble women; discuss ideas that were heterodox/challenging; dedicated to conversation – exchange, debate > not the producer of knowledge; just discusses knowledge c) Church – supervised ideas/beliefs of people; devoted to censorship; conservative patterns of thought; Ex. Galileo – 1630’s found himself prosecuted by ecclesiastics for promotion of heliocentric universe; resistant to new ideas d) Academy – foundations set up my French/English crown; generate knowledge that patrons didn’t like; Ex. English Royal Society – King Charles II limited funding; devoted to production of useful knowledge of social/natural problems e) Restaurant – French invention; nice to go out, someone else do cooking; feature of Enlightened modernity Enlightenment o Patterns of thought shaped in 18 century o Philosophes: Someone broadly interested in knowledge/ideas I. Your age, race, gender, socio-economic background did not matter. > Women, people of humble backgrounds; 1 time in history – nobleman, academics, people of lower status, women all engage in conversation; reversal in systems of rank; rank ceased to matter o Baron de Montesquieu – Spirit of the Laws; nobleman; baron o Denis Diderot – Founder of encyclopedia; dad was artisan (knife maker) o Emmanuel Kant – German enlightenment thinker; did a lot to conceptualize movement o Mary Wollstonecraft – woman o Benjamin Franklin – American philosophe Benjamin Franklin o Benjamin Franklin, pseudonym Richard Saunders (1706-1790) o American statesman, diplomat, printer, publisher, inventor and scientist Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin o Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (1759-1797) 2 o Anglo-Irish feminist and writer B. French gave access to literature > French = common language of Enlightenment; French language, style, clothing, food, manners become the ones to copy; Why French?: Rise of French power on conti
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