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HIST 1010 Nov 29 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Tuesday, November 29, 2011 Birth of the Modern: The French Revolution 1789-1799 Transforming the Ancien Régime Clicker Q What sort of REVOLUTION was the French Revolution? > Term “revolution” widely used; used to describe transformation a) Cultural revolution > FR would qualify as cultural revolution b) Commercial revolution > Relationship between capitalism/economy, but FR doesn’t qualify as commercial revolution c) Military revolution > 1790 – neighbors of France fearing FR, invaded France; French defenseless; formed new universally mobilized army – modern army fighting for country (nationalist point of view) d) Political revolution > FR overturned traditional political social order; overthrow of monarchy, church, social model of ancien regime What is a Modern Revolution? 1. Overthrow of the state – In this case the monarchy > Overthrew political order/monarchy; royal family disestablished/some were executed 2. Assertion of equality – In this case, end of “feudalism” and society of rdders > Challenges idea of inherited privilege; division of society by social orders; members of 3 estate (common people) broke from gathering of estates (1789); 3 estate = national assembly (majority of French people) 3. Radical individualism – “Rights” for both men and women. New political creature: the citizen. > Major step towards liberation/autonomy 4. New institutions: Territory, religion, measure, technique(s) – the guillotine, for example > Creation of new calendar (10 day weeks, 3 day months) – new names more properly related to reasons (as “rain month” for April); guillotine – new technology suited modern times 5. Mass mobilization: “Levée en masse” > Storming of Bastille; “The Terror” – increasing use of political violence Significance of the French Revolution? o Zhoul Enlai, Chairman Mao’s – light-hand man, said in 1972 that it was “too soon to tell.” > FR was template for all subsequent political revolutions; influenced all modern political change A “Revolutionary Age” I. Political revolution in the Atlantic World post-1760: > Britain bankrupted state after winning war – find new ways A. “Democratic” character: Promotion of equality > Right to vote remained limited to people of property B. Arose in situations of relative prosperity C. Often reflect grievance over tax and tax privilege > Resentment ov
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