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HIST 1150 Lecture Notes.docx

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HIST 1150
John Rankin

Industrialism 1122011 93200 AM RX th18 century technology in Englandmost innovations came form cotton textile industryfirst steps of separating first and third worldgreat breakthrough was coal fire steam engineth industrial revolution became global in 20 century continued invention of new techniques and economic growth that has come from industrialism marks the last 250 years as a distinct period in history Industrial Revolution in England Why in EnglandEurope superior to rest of the worldo Supposed culture superiority o Argued it was natural and inevitableo euro centric approach Europe not alone in its capacity for technological innovationFactors InternalEnclosure systems in farmland Demise of guildsmore open work forcePower of merchant class ExternalEurope had many small highly competitive states o Encouraged technological advancement Governments needed to raise revenuepushed European states into unusual alliance with the merchant classes Competition from abroado In Britian competition came from cheap Indian textileso Looked to technological innovation to produce textiles quicker University and education became centre of learning and took the first step to alliance with stateo Gov saw it as creating good citizens that were productive for the stateth By 18 c European states highly commercialized Formation of capitalistic governmenteconomyDistinct connection between industrialism and capitalism BUT they do not need to go hand in handBritish tectiles from 52 mil lbs of cotton in 1900 to 588 mil lbs by 1850Coal 5 million tons to 68 million tons in a centuryIndustrialismeconomic revolutionDecline in agricultureless than 8of britains working in agriculture Class and Industrialization People moved from areas whre families have always lived to citiesAristocracyWealth tied to land and agriculture Industrialism was a threat to their powerSet high tariffs on trademade it impossible for outside agriculture Continued to have social prestige access to office and wealthMiddle ClassIndustrialism gave middle class power for first timeUpper comprised of Factorymine owners merchants and important bankersEmulated life of aristocracy Liberals supported free trade and constitutional government and private propertyThrift hard work a rigid morality and cleanliness characterized middle class cultureRespectability was central value SelfImprovement Blamed the poor for being poorWomen Passed with homemakers wives and mothers Pushed further into private sphere home Seen as moral centre of family lifeLabor Class70 of population worked in mines workshops factories suffered most and benefited least from industrial revolution bad working conditions clock dictated work schedule as opposed to task oriented
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