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[Sept 11] Lecture 02

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HIST 1250
S Lachapelle

Early Hydraulic Civilizations HIST*1250 Tuesday, September 11, 2012 Introduction to Time Periods: BCE: Before Common Era CE: Common Era (year 0) BP: Before Present (12,000 CE) BC: Before Christ AD: Anno domini Introduction to Time Notation Decade: 10 Years Century: 100 Years Millennium: 1000 Years 1th Century: 0-99 CE 21 Century: 2000-2099 CE 1th Century BCE: 99BCE-0 Introduction Timeline Prehistory (before writing is invented) 4 ½ bya: Earth is created 500 mya: Plants, fish, and insects develop 300 mya: Reptiles appear 200 mya: Mammals appear 50 mya: Primates appear 6-8 mya: Hominids split from other primates Prehistory: Palaeolithic Era (Old StoneAge) 2 ½ mya- Australopithecus Followed by Homo halibis, homo erectus, homo sapiens Approximately 200,000 ya homo sapien sapiens Prehistory: Neolithic Era (New StoneAge) 12,000 ya- agriculture Antiquity: (3500 BCE-5 century ce) invention of writing in middle east first schools, large states, astronomy, mathematics, medicine ends with the fall of the roman empire MiddleAges (5 century to 15 century) beings with the fall with roman empire, fall with the invention of the printing press and discovery of north america by Christopher Columbus great thinkers come out of church technological advances universities begin to unfold China, Northern Africa, Middle East- great civilizations much more advanced than Europe (technology, medicine math) end with renaissance in Italy th th Early Modern Period (15 century to 18 century) centralization of power with great science and technology, financed by states, prestige attached scientific revolution Isaac Newton end with the french revolution Modern Period (18 century to present) industrial revolution feminism communism democracy European domination exploitation genetics, mechanics, atomic energy, space exploration, environmental consciousness Prehistory: TOOLS humans are not the only species to use tools, (chimpanzees) -early deliberate use of tools, tools to make tools (original to humans) -2.5 million years ago in Ethiopia -broken cobles with sharp edges used to chop wood, animal bones, meat -homo habilis (2.4 to 1.4 mya), walk upright, use hands to grasp and carry, make tools, well adapted to savanna -homo erectus (1.89 mya to 143,000 ya), short arms, long legs, small jaw and teeth, look similar to modern human, not a good climber, relies on tools, could not have survived without tools, masters fire, protect from predators, roast meat, successful species,Africa, asia, Europe, cold climate, longest lived homo species -homo sapiens (200,000 ya to present), evidence of culture, religion HOMOSAPIENS 200,000 ya, neanderthal and archaic homo sapiens, many tools, cut wood, saw bones, fish hooks, sewing needles, elaborate homes, navigation, music instruments, jewellery, decorations, paint, burial of dead, populations take care of elderly, culture changes quickly, hunter gatherers, nomadic, groups of 20-30, little surplus, everyone involved in food production, equalitarian society, no class system, kept records of lunar phases, no calendar- some notion of time keeping, yearly gatherings, stable culture, well fed, significant amount of meat about 70,000 ya, new tools, painting, music, religion, navigation Artefacts that go far beyond the needs of survival FROM HUNTER GATHERERS TO FARMERS from Palaeolithic to Neolithic era about 12,00 ya the end of the last ice age, patterns of animal migration shift to north, restriction of food supply, population spread out, nowhere to go, growing population, beginning of farming, food producers, domesticating animals a rise of pastoral nomadism and farming in settled villages wheat and barley, clearing lands, sow seeds, weed AGRICULTURE 12,000 ya to 10,000 ya in the Middle East, the Fertile Crescent wheat and barley clearing lands, sowing seeds, weeding, watering and harvesting, crops, domesticating animals a new way of life, humans transform their environment, chopping forests activities adapted to a cycle of plant growth villages, build houses to live and store goods, build defences-protect food surpl
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