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[Sept 13] Lecture 03

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University of Guelph
HIST 1250
S Lachapelle

HIST*1250 Thursday, September 13, 2012 Ancient Greece and Rome Timeline (approximately) 500,000 BP- Homo sapiens sapiens (PalaeolithicAge Hunter Gatherers) 12,000 BP- NeolithicAge begins 7000 BCE- BronzeAge begins 3500 BCE- Hydraulic civilizations appear 3000 BCE- Sumerian city states develop into Mesopotamia 3100-2200 BCE- Old kingdom into Egypt 2600-2100 BCE- Pyramid building age in Egypt 1500 BCE- Iron Age begins 900 BCE- Rise ofAssyria 500 BCE- The Persian Empire 800-300 BCE- Hellenic Civilizations 460-370 BCE- Hippocrates of Cos 427-347 BCE- Plato 384-322 BCE- Aristotle 300-100 BCE- Hellenistic Civilization 332 BCE- Founding ofAlexandria 100-170 CE- Ptolemy 129-210- Galen 350 BCE- Roman expansion into Italy 148 BCE- Macedonia becomes a Roman province 133 BCE- The Kingdom of Pergamum goes to Rome 27 BCE-476 CE- Roman Empire 100-170 CE- Ptolemy 129-210 CE- Galen 30 BCE- Annexation of Egypt 392 CE- Christianity becomes the official religion of the empire Late 300s to 400 CE- Germanic Invasions ANCIENT GREECE -astronomy, anatomy, quest for understanding, spiritual, mythical -knowledge that is pursued is essential for survival or important interest -beginning of science, much less focus on practical knowledge -separation of religion and inquiries of nature -much less centralized, same language, collection of city states in competition with one another (commercial) -poor, not prosperous, something to gain by travelling abroad (drive to see other places) -culture, not unified, culture of debate -city states emerge 800 BCE, independent, share social, cultural, and religious practices -geography- no need for large public work and organized labour -beginning of democracy (other states different fromAthens [beginning of democracy]) -beginning of drama, history, questions about nature (keep gods out of stories about nature) -vast literature, architecture, philosophy -not much observation, different from science today, no equations The Origins of the World and its Basic Concepts -private schools, no support for education, no support for scientists th The Ionians- 6 Century BCE -big centre of Greek civilization, better off than mainland, more fertile, more urbanized -recognized intellectual property- Plato andAristotle write who's idea it was -Thales of Miletus (625-545 BCE) - believes the world is made of water (water, earth, mist) – brought back geometry (travelled) – world is full of gods -Anaximander of Miletus (c. 555 BCE) - earth is at centre of three rings of fire - tries to explain how we came about (fire and water come together to form life) -Anaximander of Miletus (c. 535 BCE) - adds air -how did the world come to be? simple reality- don't necessarily see it, seems complex, what does simple reality look like? Ionians- fire, air, water, earth Empedocles (495-435 BCE)- fire, air, water, and earth + love and strife TheAtomists- 5 Century BCE -Leucippus of Miletus and Democritus ofAdbera -Small particles moving randomly in an infinite void -The world is made up of atoms The Pythagoreans Interested in life after death The ultimate reality is numerical The universe is composed of 3 spheres: -Uranos, the terrestrial sphere is the least perfect -Cosmos, the sphere of moving bodies -Olympos, the outer sphere is perfect and the home of the gods The planets and stars move
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