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[Sept 18] Lecture 04

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University of Guelph
HIST 1250
S Lachapelle

Tuesday, September 18, 2012` HIST*1250 MiddleAgesAround the Mediterranean The Hellenistic World Alexandria (332 BCE) and Ptolemaic Egypt – The Museum ofAlexandria- centre of learning, research institution, supported by the state, full library, paid, no obligation to teach – Euclid (c. 300 BCE) and geometry, studied inAcademy inAthens, move toAlexandria – Optics, acoustics, mechanics, astronomy, anatomy... Pergamum (Asia Minor) HellenisticAnatomy and Physiology rd – Human dissections-Alexandria, 3 century BCE, ruling dynasty powerful enough to violate taboos, something to gain from human dissection, vivisections of prisoners – Herophilus of Chalcedon (c. 335-c. 280 BCE)- anatomy – describes the brain, the nervous system, the eye, the liver, the pancreas, the intestines, the reproductive organs, and the heart – distinguishes veins from arteries – Erasistratus of Chios (c. 250 BCE)- physiology – how the body works – food->stomach->juice->intestines and liver->blood is sent all over the body through the veins – distinguishes veins and arteries – veins: blood (produced by the intestines and liveR) – arteries: pneuma (from the air) – nerves: psychic pneuma (produced by the brain) The Roman Empire – city that has been growing in importance since 6 century BCE – 509 BCE Rome becomes a republic and doubles as a military state, begins to conquer neighbours – fertile plains for farming, easy to travel – Rome located at natural crossing point, access to sea, don't worry about pirates, easy to defend, Rome starting to unify Italy – Rome getting bigger and bigger, 200 BCE- Rome dominant power in Mediterranean – 47 BCE- Julius Caesar dictator- 44 BCE- dictator for life, assassinated – didn't value natural philosophy – those interested in translating text should go toAthens to learn Greek Roman Engineering – roads – shipbuilding – sewage systems – aqueducts- fresh waters of supply into the city – architecture- Romans excel – the arch – the vault – the dome – invent cement – architectural innovation for war Colosseum – seat 50,000 spectators – gladiator shows – prisoners and wild beast fight Galen (129-210 CE) – studied mathematics and philosophy, medical training, knowledge of physiology, personal physician for the emperor in Rome – influenced by Plato, Aristotle, people before him in terms of medicine – interested in disease- not the patients – wants to discover universal causes, hidden causes – aims – the search for universals behind particulars – disease classification – the purpose of each organ and structure in the body – the four humours form the tissues, tissues form the organs, organs make the body – interested in anatomy and physiology, humours can help to understand – to understand disease, look at humours and specifics – disease can be connected to a disequilibrium among the humours or with a specific state of a particular organ – look at muscles, bones, intestines, each organ has a purpose – physiological system – the most influential physician in Europe until the Renaissance – every part of body had function/purpose, designed in a way that makes sense Galen Dissecting a Pig Galen's Physiological System: The Soul Site Basic Physiological Function Superior- RATIONAL The brain The nerves Inferior- PASSIONS The chest- the heart The arteries Inferior-APPETITE The abdominal cavity- the liver The veins Claudius Ptolemy (100-170) – fromAlexandria – TheAlmagest- Aims: – to discover a combination of uniform circular motions that can account for the observed positions of the planets, how the planets are in that moment in the sky – to obtain accurate quantitative forecasts of future planetary positions, predict where they will move next – how can the uniform circle account for the non uniformity of the heavens, how to explain with circles? – Model:
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