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[Sept 20] Lecture 05

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HIST 1250
S Lachapelle

HIST*1250 Thursday, September 20, 2012 MedievalAsia MiddleAges in Europe (500-1200) – the importance of Christianity and a religious tradition – learning is accomplished in the monasteries and cathedral schools – Plato and a coherent Christian look Learning and Manuscripts – religious nature – most ofAristotle's work is lost, more of Plato conserved Plato and the MiddleAges The Court of Charlemagne (c. 800) – educational reforms, great patron of learning – centralized empire – the monk Alcuin establishes the curriculum based on the 7 liberal arts – logic, grammar, and rhetoric, geometry, music, astronomy, arithmetic – the foundations of education in the Western world Technological Innovations – agriculture – the heavy plow: allows Europeans to clear farmland, too expensive for one farmer, collective ownership, communal farming – the horse: replacement of the ox, horse is faster, more endurance, new collar, farmers can live farther from fields (faster transportation), creating of villages – the three field rotation: adding another field, increases production, three year cycle – agricultural revolution: more plants, better diet, surplus- lead to urbanization – military – new style of warfare: armoured knight – the stirrup (China) – sources of power – the waterwheel and the windmill The Late MiddleAges – revival of trade, south in Venice, Italy; north in modern day Belgium – the growth of towns, urbanization – commercial capitalism, banks open th th – cities of Europe have decreased in population, begin to regrow in 11 and 12 century – building spree in the cities, economic surplus, castles and cathedrals – new architectural innovation – the late medieval city – from Romanesque to Gothic cathedrals Chartres Cathedral – magnificent stained glass and high ceilings Life in a Medieval City – cities surrounded by walls, narrow streets, crowded houses (2-3 floors high) – polluted, dirty, animal and human waste on street, fires make air hard to breathe, garbage in the rivers – artisans, work is organized around guilds – guild: association of workers, how the product is made, how much to sell for, who makes it – to become an artisan, become an apprentice and work for guild for many years The Universities – Bologna (Italy) 1150, Paris 1200, Oxford 1220 – a university is a guild or voluntary association between students (apprentice) and teachers (masters), new group interested in learning – in Paris, 4 faculty of guilds: – an undergraduate faculty of liberal arts, through lecture method, teacher reads from text, adds explanation – 3 graduate faculties: law, medicine, and theology – using new manuscripts University Learning TheAge of Translations (1125-1200) – translating from Greek andArabic into Latin – source of stimulation and energy in the universities Christianity and Secular Learning – problems with Aristotle's teaching, very popular in universities and with students – an eternal universe – form and matter can not exist separately – a deterministic universe with no room for the intervention of the prime mover, always know what is going to happen, no room for miracles – allegations of pantheism, identifies god with the universe, does not think that god exists outside of the universe that he created – how to makeAristotle and Christianity work together – 13 century: series of bands of teachingAristotle's work – universities advertising and teachingAristotle – Scholasticism – ThomasAquinas (1224-1274) and the problem of how to reconcile faith and reason – investigating nature isn't bad- god gave sense to use to do this – Aristotle became safe for Christianity, all debates resulted in the demise ofAristotle and the beginning of modern science China – more remote – human communities living in China during Palaeolithic – early Neolithic settlements along Yellow River and Yangtze River – barley and wheat cultivated in north – Gobi desert- nomadic groups, come as marauders – large
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