HIST 1250 Lecture Notes - Age 13, Middle Ages, Bourgeoisie

6 views4 pages
25 Nov 2011
Department
Course
Professor
Science and Professionalization
1. Revolution in Transportation
traditional transport: canals
water had been cheaper than transporting goods by land
if you tied a horse that was tied to a barge on a canal it could carry
significantly more than just on its back
1825: George Stevenson builds locomotive
1830: first modern railway (Manchester‐to‐Liverpool)
first: moved 16 miles/h; by 1850: 50 miles/h
originally designed to moved goods not people
moving people was thought as one of the most important revolutionary stuff
moving people ended up being much more lucrative then just moving goods
better than traveling by stage coach
rail travel was a quantum leap forward
by 1852: 7000 miles of railway
contraction of railway became the boom
2. Social Effects of Industrialization: New Classes
the bourgeoisie
the emerging owner class
the land owning class
charged high rental rates
rise of the factory system, not just land ownership but factory ownership
upper middle class
dominate all aspects of society
fuelled demand for luxury goods
the working class
living and working conditions were abominable
moved fro the farms to cramped space in the city
work in factories was shitty, dangerous, accidents on a regular basis, missing
fingers, hair caught in things - scalping
many workers were children
child labour
exploited on an unprecedented scale
1830s and 1840s: reform
e.g. Robert Owen (1771‐1858)
succesful manager of a cotton mill in manchester
investigated conditions in factories in scotland
prohibited children under age 10 to work in mills
10 hour work day for child labour
e.g. Factory Act (1833)
under owen's influence
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