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HIST 1250 (128)

Science and Professionalization

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HIST 1250
Tara Abraham

Science and Professionalization 1. Revolution in Transportation traditional transport: canals water had been cheaper than transporting goods by land if you tied a horse that was tied to a barge on a canal it could carry significantly more than just on its back 1825: George Stevenson builds locomotive 1830: first modern railway (Manchester‐to‐Liverpool) first: moved 16 miles/h; by 1850: 50 miles/h originally designed to moved goods not people moving people was thought as one of the most important revolutionary stuff moving people ended up being much more lucrative then just moving goods better than traveling by stage coach rail travel was a quantum leap forward by 1852: 7000 miles of railway contraction of railway became the boom 2. Social Effects of Industrialization: New Classes the bourgeoisie the emerging owner class the land owning class charged high rental rates rise of the factory system, not just land ownership but factory ownership upper middle class dominate all aspects of society fuelled demand for luxury goods the working class living and working conditions were abominable moved fro the farms to cramped space in the city work in factories was shitty, dangerous, accidents on a regular basis, missing fingers, hair caught in things - scalping many workers were children child labour exploited on an unprecedented scale 1830s and 1840s: reform e.g. Robert Owen (1771‐1858) succesful manager of a cotton mill in manchester investigated conditions in factories in scotland prohibited children under age 10 to work in mills 10 hour work day for child labour e.g. Factory Act (1833) under owen's influence prohibited work under age 9 provided 2 hours of daily education under age 13, 9 hour days, under 40 hour weeks sanitary regulations brought in 3. Social Effects of Industrialization: Urban Context and Public Health growth of industrial cities hallmarks of industrial cities: streets are small, no real organization slums crowded and filthy no comprehensive sewer system a) Technological Waste sovientry over nature no forethought about waste that is produced coal burning, biggest producer of technological waste 1880, london, 600 000 homes, 3.5 million fire places burning coal SMOG days mid 1880s number of smoggy days a year tripled 3. Social Effects of Industrialization: Urban Context and Public Health b) Human Waste & Disease contamina
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