Class Notes (836,415)
Canada (509,777)
History (1,252)
HIST 2040 (13)
Lecture 6

History Lecture 6.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 2040
William Cormack

th The Illusions of Limited War in the 19 Century I POST-NAPOLEONIC RESTRAINTS ON WAR • European Congress System  After Napoleon’s defeat, allies held Congress of Vienna to determine peace settlement  Napoleon’s escape in 1815 made powers more determined to meet whenever peace was threatened  System of congresses, “Concert of Europe”, had only limited value as check on war • Fear of Revolutions  Monarchs & upper classes feared war could provoke revolution  Despite efforts to suppress liberal & national movements, political upheaval not easily checked  Unrest of proletariat did not provoke war in first half of 19 century • Liberalism  Liberals saw war as opposed to the social & economic policies they advocated  Liberalism, opposed to reactionary regimes, was also check on war II CONFIRMATION OF TRADITIONAL MILITARY SYSTEMS • Retreat from Conscription  After 1815 most European states discarded national conscript armies & returned to regular standing armies  British army commanded by upper classes, soldiers enlist voluntarily: social structure identical to th 18 -century army  France renounced conscription & reduced army’s size  Russia retained conscription & huge army, but backward economy & society undermined military strength  Prussia maintained conscription, but also democratic militia, Landwehr, which was kept separate  Aristocratic domination of officer corps was preserved • Revolutions of 1848  Military establishments were able to crush uprisings  After revolutions’ failure, possibility of overturning existing rulers seemed remote  But international problems diverted political energy into nationalist channels and toward war III LIMITED WARS IN THE MID-19TH CENTURY • Crimean War (1853-56)  Fought in Crimea against Russia by alliance of Britain, France, Piedmont & Turkey  War was limited  Allies besieged Sevastopol, far from their bases, but was also distant from heart of Russian empire  Crimean War exposed weakness of professional armies: badly commanded & poorly supplied  Signs of change during war  Florence Nightingale pioneered nursing care  William Howard Russell sent detailed reports by telegraph to London Times • Italian War of Liberation (1859)  Piedmont’s objective to liberate Italy from Austrian rule; needed aid from Napoleon III  War limited: France withdrew after Battle of Solferino  Signs of change: French victory reflected new artillery & rifles IV ATTEMPTS TO LIMIT CONFLICT • International Conventions  Limited wars showed that liberal ideology, combined with nationalism, could work for war instead of peace  Stimulated efforts to curb war through international conventions  Henri Dunant helped establish Red Cross  In 1864, 26 nations signed Geneva Convention regarding wounded, POWs & hospitals  Idea that conduct in war subject to law dated back to old notions of “just” and “unjust” wars th  Laws of war which gained acceptance in 19 century were designed to moderate war’s impact on society  Efforts to establish code of conduct for war at sea • Hague Conferences (1899, 1907)  Tsar Nicholas II proposed to limit armaments, mitigate horrors of war, & provide system to settle disputes  Hague Conferences banned some weapons, but little support for arms limitations  Established international court, but recourse optional • Failure to Limit War  National sovereignty thwarted 19 -century efforts to limit or abolish war through international law  Socialists preached pacifism & opposed “imperialist war” on principle, but supported governments when war declared in 1914  Public opposition to war shallow NAMES FROM THE LECTURE: • Congress of Vienna • Concert of Europe • Carbonari • Proletariat • Landwehr • Sebastopol • Charge of the Light Brigade • Napoleon III • Florence Nightingale • William Howard Russell • Piedmont • Battle of Solferino (1859) • Henri Dunant • Red Cross • Ivan S. Bloch Towards Total War I INDUSTRIALIZATION OF WAR • Steel & Artillery  Of changes associated with Industrial Revolution, those in iron industry most important for military purposes  Coke (almost pure carbon) replaced charcoal in smelting iron  Henry Cort patented ‘puddling’ & ‘rolling’ in iron production  In 1856 Henry Bessemer developed converter to produce large quantities of steel cheapl
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2040

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.