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September 16th Notes

3 Pages

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HIST 2100
Jason Wilson

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Sept 16 Europe prior to contact 1340s-1600 1. Feudalism 900-1400 a. Economic social and political system b. King  nobles  knights  peasants c. The peasants made up the majority of the population 2. Effects of the black death 1347-1351 a. Threat from below (the peasants) b. Could die within days or less, created spreading panic c. 1/3 of the population of Europe died from the black death and subsequent plagues d. 1500-1750 witch hunts (scapegoats for these plagues) 100,000 women were accused of being witches and 60,000 were burned e. feudal lords—lots of civil wars f. peasant population is decimated due to the plagues and the warfare g. feudal system is impacted—there is not enough peasants to work the farms i. lots of peasant uprising due to the leverage they now have 3. New nation states arise a. Tudors: England b. Valois: france c. Medici: Florence d. Hapsburgs: Austria, spain, Netherlands e. The kings and queens would hire mercenaries—warfare has become professionalized f. These families have the confidence, motivation and resources for this overseas exploration 4. New merchant class arises a. Working class and upper class wants luxury goods—wine, linens, armor, etc b. Good for entrepreneurs c. Merchants are expanding their business d. Merchants and traders are lending money to the monarchs and the pope— they are also financing exploration e. Neighbouring merchants and ruling monarchs are always ready to compete with one another f. Wealth is being concentrated in the hands of the few 5. Living conditions of the masses a. Work was gender based—women were responsible for the food and child rearing and men were responsible for building structures and the heavy agricultural work b. Children were treated as tiny adults and were disciplined as such c. Wind and water were harnessed for power d. Work was governed by the seasons e. Landlords became able to charge for rent i. Linen industry emerges in Ireland Sept 16 f. Life in the city had some new opportunities but was still risky— nuremberg was emerging in industry and culture g. The print shop (printing press was created in 1455)—division of labour based on various skill sets h. Many
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