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September 11th Notes

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HIST 2100
Jason Wilson

th Sept 11 2013 First Nations in year 1500 1. Family Life a. In nomadic tribes (red river hunters), family life was mostly nuclear with neighbouring teepees having extended families b. In hunter societies, men had the authority, they were migratory hunters c. In contrast with the more subtle tribes like the iroquis in southern ontairo, haida in BC—here they had 10-30 families under one roof and individual families would have a divider to provide minimal privacy d. Iroquis were a matrilineal society—the oldest woman was the matriarch and the families in the long house were related by the female line (sisters and their family, daughters and their family), they were also matrilocal, when a woman got married the husband had to come live with HER family e. Little privacy in these native households which could help explain the relaxed attitudes about sexual relationships, pre-marital relationships, homosexuality and cross-dressing was accepted f. There was no such thing as marriage and divorce g. The children were generally raised by the community, they had a lot of freedom and little discipline h. Gender roles: men and woman were generally held of equal value—men hunted large game and traded over large distances, built structures and protected the tribe/women were responsible for the children and maintaining the food supply, they engaged in agriculture, they processed fish and hunted small game and made clothing and sewed; they were active in creating the trade goods (pottery, corn mean, etc) that the men traded i. Iroquis women were highly valued and esteemed in their communities because they were farmers and controlled the food supply; therefore controlling whether a tribe went to war among other thigns j. In the plateau area women were also highly valued because they cured the fish and older women were considered to be wise k. The black foot (plains) captured women from other tribes and used them for breeding and men had multiple wives of different rankings l. Athapascans were also migratory and had multiple wives m. Basic family unit is similar to the Europeans but had different customs and values in relation to sexual relationships, child rearing, etc 2. Property Wealth a. They were less concerned about property and accumulating it than the Europeans were b. Mutual dependency—emphasis on sharing, they moved around too much to accumulate too much c. The huron had individual plots of lands in some cases but crops were distributed evenly through feast giving, etc—this cemented friendships and loyalty th Sept 11 2013 d. Plains natives didn’t have individual property but had a system of who was able to hunt where 3. Trade a. Skilled traders through experience b. The huron had built an extensive trade network—they were important middle men—they were agriculturalists c. The natives from the north had furs d. Neutral tribe near Niagara—didn’t do a lot of trading and travelling, they grew corn, didn’t really have canoes, they were more self contained e. Natives that were constantly on the move were traders 4. Religion a. They believed that there is a divinity re
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