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Lecture 8

HIST 2200 Lecture 8: Hist2200 Lecture 8 (02.02.2017)

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University of Guelph
HIST 2200
Chelsea Hartlen

Hist*2200 Lecture #8 ▯1 Chelsea Hartlen T/Th 1:00-2:20 Topic - The Viking Expansions First VikingAge Sagas Second VikingAge Knarr, karve, longship Norsemen/Northmen/Danes York and Dublin Rus/Varangians Ivar the Boneless Lindisfarne Charles the Fat Iona Harald Bluetooth Anglo Saxon Chronicle Coming to the end of the Early MiddleAges Outline - The First VikingAge: Raiding (790-860) - Ships and Navigation - The Second VikingAge: Settlement (860-1000) - From Vikings to Normans - Nomenclature and Terms for Vikings • A-viking (to go on a sea board raid, not the medieval term, led to a lot of historiographical confusion) • North Men • Norsemen • Foreigners • Danes • Foreigners • Pagans • Heathens • Rus • Varangians • Magians First VikingAge - Modern scholar term (wasn’t used in the middle age) - Two of them, but they both overlap each other. Patterns are very distinct - definite beginning for #1 (787 - Vikings land in South of England) • More classic beginning (793 - raid of the monastery at Lindisfarne) - Characterized by the following: Hist*2200 Lecture #8 ▯2 Chelsea Hartlen T/Th 1:00-2:20 • Seasonal raiding • Retreats - Orkney, Scotland: by about 800 the vikings were here (earliest settlement) - Middle of 9th century, rest of settlements developed - First account:Alcuin of York (councilmen of Charlemagne) • 793 -Alcuin writes a letter to theArchbishop of Canterbury say “how is it possible that they can get all the way up here from the seas) • Come out of nowhere, and are gone as fast as they came (usually you hear from messengers someone is on the way, or you see them, but the vikings pop out from the mist, raid, and pop back onto the boat) • Jutes • Angles • Saxons - Two sources • Count of Clerics (perspective of people being attacked) • Oral History (sagas of the vikings themselves, someone who is writing hundreds of years after) • Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (880 CE) (year by year account, created in the late 9th century) - Diary - 793 “Here terrible portents came about over the land of Northumbria… in the same year on 8 January the raiding of eaten men miserably devastated God’s church in Lindisfarne island by looting and slaughter” - 794 “Here Pope Hadrian and King Offa passed away..And the heathens raided in Northumbria and noted Ecgfrith’s minster and the Don mouth” - We know how, what and when they did things, but not why? • changes to legal system • population boom • vikings weren’t great writers, carved things, but weren’t sitting down writing about all of the bad things (just fixed it) • Vikings carried out Raids that were poorly protected and had monetary wealth - This is why they attacked monasteries b.c. they were very hard to get to, weren’t armed - Monasteries were filled with art, jewels, paper, cloth etc… ornate things that the Vikings wanted - Killed or captured people within or sold them to slavery - Left for greener pastures afterwards • Why they could do this? - SHIPS - Mastery of sea and water + ship building technology - Small enough they could go in rivers but big enough to conquer the sea - Knarr (built for long voyages, put sheep and pigs in it) - Karve (a little bit smaller) Hist*2200 Lecture #8 ▯3 Chelsea Hartlen T/Th 1:00-2:20 - Longship (warship, used for bulk of battles and fighting) • Features: shallow hulls, riven timber, overlapping pl
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