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Lecture 20

HIST 2200 Lecture 20: Hist2200 Lecture 20 (03.23.2017)

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HIST 2200
Chelsea Hartlen

Hist*2200 Lecture #20 ▯1 Chelsea Hartlen T/Th 1:00-2:20 Topic - The Hundred Years’War (1337-1453) Kingship Charles VI (1380-1422) Legitimacy Charles VII (r. 1422-1461) Vassalage Edward III (England, r. 1327-1377) Rule of Succession Richard II (1377-99) Philip IV (France r. 1328-1350) Henry IV (r. 1399-1413) John II (r. 1350-1364) Henry V (r. 1413-1422) Charles V (r. 1364-1380) John of Lancaster (regent, 1422-1435) Henry VI (r. 1422-1461) Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (r. 1363-1404) John the Fearless (duke, 1404-1419) Philip the Good (duke, 1419-1467) Outline • Legitimacy & Vassalage: pretexts of the wars Medieval Military Revolution • • The Hundred Years’War • The End of the Hundred Years War King’s Touch (suffering ends merely with King’s touch) Blood of kings were holy, successor was his preferably his elder son in wedlock Doctrine of Legitimacy and Vassalage - There can only be one - Have to be born under very specific circumstances - If the king on the throne was not legitimate, then the legitimate ruler was somewhere out there (God would not have been happy) - Everyone should challenge the usurper - 1366 when Count of Trastamara wanted to oust his brother, he said that his mother was secretly married toAlfonso XI • If true: Enrique II is legitimate and is the ruler • If false: Pedro is a legitimate ruler - If you are already a king you can’t be “gotten rid of” and still stay alive. - Legitimacy meant that as long as there was a claimant to the throne they were a serious danger (thus they needed to be killed or married) - Threat was so serious that after the Scottish crown beat the Mac-Williams was put to death - Vassals: Kings of England from Richard I onward held vassals of the land Hist*2200 Lecture #20 ▯2 Chelsea Hartlen T/Th 1:00-2:20 - Edward I swore that people couldn’t swear allegiance to other rulers - One of the problems of legitimacy were rules of succession • Primogeniture had come into effect (Elder born had the right to rule) • Beyond those rules, they didn’t know what to do (could women rule, could men inherit from their mothers?) • Some countries were fine with female rulers (as long as they were legitimate) • Inheritance was up for debate, families pushed their own agendas to suite their needs. When the usual circumstances weren’t there, people didn’t know what to do and thus they broadly interpreted the laws based on their dynastic goals - Succession in France: 1316, France declared SALIC LAW (bars women from inheriting the thrown) - Although SALIC LAW forbade women, it didn’t apply in the family line - Succession Crises 1328 - Military Revolution (usually talking about the modern era, but the medieval era has a lot to learn) • There was a fundamental change in war during the 100 Years War • 2 developments - Infantry revolution (people, how they fight, 14th century) - Artillery Revolution (what we fight with, 15th century) • Pike and Shot • English Longbow • Scottish Pike • Use of the Pike, also put a stop to cavalry charges (they’d previously been used, but moving pike squares were used to attack cavalry) • Power of the Gentry Medieval Military Revolution - Although cannon had been in Europe since the 14th c. they really weren’t effective (basically a waste of money and time) - Length of barrel made cannons better (Fired more rapidly, stronger etc…) - Monarchs of small kingdoms had trouble incorporating artillery b.c they couldn’t afford it - Also start to see expansion of ships and naval warfare • Transportation and navigation was massive b.c of English Channel, surrounded by water, apart of the geography that people want to make use of) • Navigation was improved by compass, astrolabe. • Naval warfare (very. few battles actually occurred in the water) • Battle of Sluys (1340) - blockades were used to prevent the access of food etc… stop supplies from getting to the enemy
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