Heresy: popular thing in the 12th century, direct threat to the papacy, main source was the church itself and its laws. Balkan missionaries to convert people, were called cathars of cathari means the pure people: actively trying to convert, chiefly in lombardy, tuscany and southern. France: never spread to england b/c some came to england(henry ii), were flogged, branded and thrown out into the snow to die, end of spread to. We only have knowledge about them from their enemies. Thought that transubstantiation was wrong, baptism as an adult, sex was mortal sin, wrong to kill anything, no oaths allowed: cathars spread to small areas in northern germany, italy. Francis of assisi (1182-1226: church develops group of preachers to convert the herectics, called the. Church killed, lasted until 1215 with the fall of toulouse, crusaders were landless knights and noble sons coming for the land , cathars eventually crushed: apostolic poverty still remained, church tried to control it.