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Lecture

lec.mar.8.2012.rtf


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2200
Professor
Christine Ekholst

Page:
of 3
Lecture March 8th 2012
EARLY MONASTICISM
-st. Benedict (dead 547)
-the Benedictine rule (540)
-Prayer, reading and labor
-monastery of Cluny (founded 909/910)
-independent from secular power
-guidance of the pope was not secular
-The Cluniacs
-the cluniac reform (950-1130)
-reform monasteries
-enforced celibacy & regeted simony
-obiedience, poverty and discipline
-stil used the Benedictine rule just enforced it more
-three activities: praying, reading and working
-reading the bible
-working could be manual labor, or activities contacted to learning and culture
-set hours for mass and prayer
-the first one at dawn (3 or 4 am)
-monasteries were centres of learning
-wrote history
-annals, chronology from year by year
-produced illuminated manuscripts
-during the 12th cent.
-increasing number of different orders
-some emphasized poverty
-others were recluses or hermits
-emphasized solitude as a way to connect with God
-most important of new orders/famous -->
-Citeaux (Cistercium)
CITEAUX
-lived by the Benedictine rule
-simplicity
-wanted to get rid of all to distractions in the monasteries
-General chapter
-all monasteries has to obey decisions made by this chapter
-standardized liturgy
-when pray happened and which music was to be played
FINAL EXAM
-essay questions based on the primary sources
-background and the context
-what can the sources tell us about the topic?
-analyze the sources and give examples from the sources
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE & ART
-first wave of monumental architecture
-massive and heavy
-thick walls, dignified and sturdy impression
-barrel type vaults
-cloister
-where the monks were supposed to be
-cistercian order --> simplicity also in architecture
-example photos on slides
-cistercians
-called the white monks
-colour of their cloaks
-great land owners
-agricultural revolution
-benedictine monks
-called the black monks
-reflected what the nuns wore
-nuns
-respected, virgins
-monasteries --> education for women
-nuns were not required to perform manual labor
-women could not be ordained (priests)
-double houses - both monks and nuns together
-lay brothers
-ordinary ppl who lived in monasteries
-often performed the manual labor
FRANCISCAN ORDER
-st.francis - 1209
-their necessities - not for money
-urban setting - not rural
-preached to ordinary people
-Dominicans and the fransiscans are the same
-friars (blackfriars, grey friars)
-you can tell the dome form the fran b/c they wear different door clothes
THE BEGUINES
-women living in informal communities
-worked and took now vows (could marry)
-dedicated themselves to worship and piety
-lay piety
THE FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL 1215
-no new religious order
-exceptions were fransiscans, dominicans and beguines