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HIST 2260
Norman Smith

HIST 2260*DE – Unit 2 Summary ENGLAND , NTRODUCTION  England to be dominated theologically by Calvinism for more than a century, but was Calvinism modified by a royal determination to keep certain aspects of Catholicism — odd mixture, lead to conflict THE N ATIONALIZATION OF R ELIGION Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary: The First Interlude  1534 - Henry VIII was proclaimed Supreme Head of Church in England. Beginning of trend for Christianity in England to become identified with one national group rather than many  Henry VII, had been victor in civil war in England, and was founding member of new dynasty o Henry VII could not risk another civil war breaking on his death, felt need for a son, rather than daughter, to succeed him  Was to be followed by short-lived son, then two daughters (second - remembered as England’s greatest monarch)  For ordinary people, little changed in religious practices except for slow introduction of English into services.  Major change that altered landscape of faith was dissolution of monasteries (1536) o Henry needed money and expropriated buildings and lands of monasteries, sold them off to private individuals. Most of monks and nuns pensioned off, though some of men became parish priests in local churches  1539 – Henry called halt to further changed with Act of Six Articles – reaffirmed traditional Catholic theological teachings, penalty for refusing to assent being death o ‘Catholicism without the Pope’  Henry VIII died in 1547, and 9-year old son Edward VI, raised Protestant and Calvinist, became King  Edward VI had more influence than previously thought o Royal commissioners sent out across the kingdom to ensure that strict Protestantism was enforced. Wall paintings in churches (paintings of saints and Biblical stories adorned church walls) were whitewashed, altars smashed, gold and silver cups and plates sold off, stained-glass windows destroyed, and interior architecture of churches altered to change the focus from Mass at altar, to auditorium style where preaching was focus o Altered service of English church changed fundamentally with intro of Book of Common Prayer in 1549  Edward VI died at age 13-years, and succeeded by sister Mary, who reintroduced Catholicism o Catholic statues, silver cups, even altars were hidden all over the country —buried in gardens or hidden away in barns. People dug them up, brought them out again, and re-decorated churches for Catholic Mass once again  After rebellion nearly overthrew Mary, she instituted reprisals, executing many Protestants. Reign was not particularly bloody, but reputation was attacked by one of earliest examples of propaganda: John Foxe’s illustrated book "Actes and Monuments of these Latter and Perillous Days", touching Matters of the Church o Related persecution of Protestants by Mary and linked them to persecution of other individuals he saw as precursors to Protestantism in past The Elizabethan Settlement  1558 – Mary died, succeeded by Protestant half sister, Elizabeth I o Determined to restore Protestant settlement, easier to control  She would have no Pope or other outside authority, but a compliant church and religious establishment to help set tone of nation and hold it together o Helped her policy, reigned for long time 1558-1603  Re-established Anglicanism as Church of England  1559 – Act of Uniformity o Attempt to legally ‘nationalize’ religion in England. Accompanied by attempts to extend this to all British Isles (ended in failure) o Religious freedom was not intended, but rather imposition of Protestant form, dictated by State. Was no sense religion was private, individual matter, or that religion should be divorced from State. Religion was still religio, public matter which bolstered administration and was itself supported by monarchy and levers of government  1562 – Book of Metrical Psalms o Book set public style of worship in Anglican churches until 19th century o Form of worship in new Church of England (Anglican) was consist from time on of readings and prayers in English - readings being from Bible, the prayers composed based on Biblical texts, accompanied by psalms chanted or sung  1563 – Catechism o Lutherans had catechisms produced by Martin Luther himself, and Calvinists had Jean Calvin’s Institutes of Christian Religion o Catechism was first attempt to provide means of teaching what members of Church of England were supposed to believe o Presented form of religion which defined Anglicanism as treading middle path between Calvinism and Lutheranism - with vestiges of Catholicism  1563 – 38 Articles of Religion o Theologians agreed on 38 theological principles which underlay new Church of England  1571 – 39 Articles of Faith o All clergy - but never laity - required to assent to these articles, as were students at Oxford and Cambridge (which were training grounds for Anglican clergy) o England became confessional state in this period; that is, Church of England was not only established legally, but became integrated into hearts and minds of people as part of national identity o English maintained and even revived old Roman sense of religio - religion is public duty and public act, whatever you may personally believe yourself. Those who didn’t assent were for first 3 centuries of Anglicanism occasionally persecuted. Were not thrown to lions like ancient Rome, but did suffer under various legal disabilities, some quite harsh o By the time Elizabeth died in 1603, very few people living remembered Catholic England, or even Calvinist England of Edward VI. In 1570, Pope ex-communicated Elizabeth, and Catholic Spain took it upon itself to attempt to conquer England to remove heretic Elizabeth and restore realm to Catholic faith. Thus, Anglicanism began to represent nationalism, or rather Catholicism began to be equated with treason Limits: Anglicans, Catholics and Puritans  Catholicism o Catholicism never entirely suppressed —somewhere around 10% of population never abandoned Old Religion, especially in north of England, where powerful nobles controlled vast tracts of land and many powerful nobles remained Catholic, particularly the Howard family o After 1570, position of Catholics became more difficult as Catholicism in England became equated with treason from that time. Various increasingly harsher laws were passed with penalty of death - for being a priest, for allowing a Mass to be said, etc.  Catholicism still considered foreign religion to many  Puritans o From 1570s - dissident group within Church of England (known as Puritans) worked to further ‘purify’ Church of England, to purge it of remaining resemblances to Catholicism, such as having bishops, and to establish church government by presbyteries (that is, councils of local church members) rather than by bishops o In Calvinist and Lutheran lands, clergy wore ordinary street clothes, or perhaps a simple preaching robe over clothes. This was called ‘vestiarian controversy’ and was Elizabeth’s most difficult problem to deal with. Forced to eject Puritan clergy from churches to enforce her choice. More ‘purely’ Protestant form of religion Symbolized by vestments was held in check for her reign, and for that of her successor, but was not to be settled finally until 1662. Elizabeth avoided unhappiness Edward VI’s reforms had caused by allowing many folk religious practices to continue  1603–1625: Reign of King James I o Re-affirmed nature of English episcopal Protestantism and introduced another Book of Common Prayer, dashing hopes of Puritans that he would introduce Scottish-style Calvinist Protestantism into England  1611: The Bible, King James Version o Greatest product of his reign was Authorized Version or King James version of Bible in English. THE S ECOND INTERLUDE The Puritan Challenge to the Church of England:  The English Civil War, Commonwealth & Protectorate 1642–1660 o King Charles I, son of James I, reigned from 1625 until execution in 1649 — at which time England ceased temporarily to be monarchy, and experimented with ‘puritanism’ in religion - known as English Civil War o Civil war broke out with royalists and Anglicans on one side, and forces of parliament headed by Puritans on other  Parliament began as royal advisory council, with gradually growing powers of taxation, which exceeded those held by monarch. Unlike kings in France or Spain, English kings forced to work with parliament because of financial clout. Thus English democracy (still far in future) had early roots in this growing parliamentary power  Already by reign of Charles I, was shocking for king to dismiss parliament and attempt to rule country without this body. Civil war thus good illustration of intertwined links among religion and political life. Charles lost civil war, especially because parliamentary forces had one of great generals of history on their side, Oliver Cromwell o By 1649, Charles executed by parliamentary forces and republic based on Calvinist principles w
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