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HIST 2260
Norman Smith

HIST 2260DEUnit 3 SummaryCELTIC GREAT BRITAIN INTRODUCTIONCelts prior to Roman Conquest of island of Great Britain dominated what is now England and Wales and island of Ireland Celts of Ireland were later to invade and dominate ScotlandCultures of wild landshunting fishing and some agricultureneither Wales nor Scotland were well suited to agricultureo Were not places suited to towns or cities until much later in historyProduced similar styles of religion o Polytheistic pagan faith of preChristian Roman Empire was urban in nature with complex rituals and belief systemso Early Christianitycentered around bishops located in major cities o Celtic paganism and Celtic Christianity were faiths of families tribes and very small settlementscharacterized by roaming shamans then priests and then after the Reformation preachersSCOTLAND GOD IN THE NORTHERN KINGDOMCatholic nation in 1500 profoundly affected by ideas of Martin Luther and then Jean CalvinScotland and England although they shared an island were quite differentdifferences were tiny before Protestant Reformation became larger after as the Reform was received differently in each placeIn Scotland the monarchy was not as rich as in England simply because Scotland was itself a poorer country National wealth was based on agriculture and Scotland quite simply had little good agricultural land o Meant that monarchymuch less powerful in political system than in England and aristocracy that much stronger EnglandKing had power to enforce national change in religionScotlandKind did not have ability to force nation to do anything the aristocracy didnt want o Reform to be characterized in early years as also struggle for power between monarchy and aristocracyThe First Phase of the Scottish Reform 15421557Lords of the CongregationProtestant Reform entered Scotland directly from continent with import of Lutheran ideas utilizing new technology of printingScottish monarch and Catholic Church particularly close to France Royal family in Scotland most closely identified with Catholicism while Scottish parliamentwhich meant mostly the aristocracy because parliament was still more of royal council than representative bodywished to wrest more power from the crown and thus allied itself with the Protestant causeAristocracy and monarchy had always wrestled each other for power but now the aristocrats had an influential new ideology in Protestantism to lend legitimacy to their goalsMade Protestantism in Scotland different from in England o Englandreform instituted by the monarchy rather than in opposition to is as in ScotlandEarly attempts to change practices of Catholic Church in Scotland in order to forestall Reformation but too little too late o Scotland ruled by King James V died in 1542 and roughly coterminous with reign of Henry VIII o James remained Catholic throughout live When Henry VIII began reform in England Catholic priests fled North to Scotland while Scottish reformers fled South to EnglandScotlandking allowed to control appointments of bishops although this was privilege jealously defended by papacyo Fear that Scots would follow English precedentScottish monarchy too often appointed bishops to reward friends rather than for religious reasons Bishops were great landholding and thus wealthy lords and the office of bishop was therefore covetedBishops and monasteries also drew revenues by taxing local parish churches These local churches often then did not have enough money left over in a poor country such as Scotland to keep good clergy in local churches Thus the Catholic Church in Scotland was fatally weakened at the grass roots levelwhereas in relatively wealthy England monasteries bishops and local churches all had enough o Made Catholicism unpopular among both aristocrats and ordinary people leaving the monarchy and its family and close friends the only supportersReform in Scotland had 2 opposite prongs o 1 Aristocracy who wanted to lessen royal power though not eliminate it and people at the other end who had little loyalty to a church which served them so poorly because of the appropriation of revenues for bishops and monasteries o 2 The monarchy The Pope hoped that by giving more autonomy to the king he could save the church in Scotland the same way he had saved it in France and in Spain but this prevented effective reform at the parish level within CatholicismPopular and aristocratic opposition to monarchy increased when King James V died in 1542 leaving his French wife to administer the country as his daughter Mary Queen of Scots was too young to assume the throne o England became involved because of a fear of French control being imposed on ScotlandNationalism became attached to Protestant partyIn 1545 former priest John Knox began to agitate for reform He was banished imprisoned in France then went to England during the reign of Edward VI then fled to Geneva where he learned at the feet of Calvin o Returned to Scotland in 1557 when Protestant nobles banded together into what was called Lords of the Congregation and who swore a solemn covenant to promote cause of true religion in Scotland under Knoxs influenceDrew up Confession of Faith and Book of Discipline for Reformed church
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