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Unit 5 Summary.docx

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University of Guelph
HIST 2260
Norman Smith

HIST 2260*DE – Unit 5 Summary INTRODUCTION – CONTINENTAL INFLUENCES  Prior to Reformation, Christianity in the West was relaxed – part of the fabric of life woven together in a way that defined separation – complex web of inheritance, habit, relationship and obligation  After Reformation, Catholic countries and Catholic Church took defensive, war-footing, and found necessary to define itself, in contradiction to Reformers o 1545-1563 - great council of church held which produced list of definitions of what it was to be Catholic and also introduced own set of reforms, focusing on education (of local priests, and local Catholics in their faith) FRANCE  France remained Catholic, until the French Revolution of 1789 when it experimented with atheism as a national religion  Today, has no official creed, and religious belief is rate, but when it occurs, is either Catholic or Muslim  After collapse of Roman Empire in West, France was overrun by Germanic tribes - one of which, Franks, became dominant - Rulers convinced to adopt Roman-style Christianity  Catholic history in France from this time became wrestling match between king and Pope over day-to-day and year-to-year control of structures of institutional church o E.g. who should appoint bishops, or who should benefit financially from church-held lands, etc.  On eve of Reformation, Catholic Church in France came closest to fitting description of national church - agreement between Papacy and French monarchy called Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges in 1438 made king of France head of Gallican Church in nearly everything outside of matters of belief and ritual o Crown could, and did, tax clergy, try clerics in lay courts, could appoint bishops and abbots o Papal authority in these areas circumscribed  Rights enjoyed by monarchs  Reformation presented very real threat to royal authority and royal control - abolition of Catholicism meant substantial loss of authority, influence, and revenue  King of France agreed Catholic clergy should pay tax to Rome - but same clergy also collect taxes for king. Concordat confirmed king‟s right to appoint bishops - and bishops controlled clergy within each diocese or territorial division of Church  Protestantism made roads into France – By 1550 more than half nobility Protestant and almost as many of general population o Entered France during reign of Francis I  French wars of religion fought over issues from 1562-1594 – 6 or 7 separate wars of religion, finally ending when Protestant (Henry IV) became king and promptly converted to Catholicism SPAIN  Achieved somewhat the same position as France, although in Spain never significant Protestant movement  Spain been principle province of Roman Empire since 100B.C. and successfully Christianized 200 years later  By 460s, Spain conquered by West Goths (Visgothsth– were Christians already, but not Catholic Christians until 589 A.D. o Islam spread outside borders of Arabia in 7 century, spreading west along north African coast, and conquering most modern-day Spain over 7 year period, and even moving into modern-day southern France  711-1492 – 700-year period of religious war to recover Spain from Muslims produced people who unlikely to be tolerant of non- Christan religions or peoples o People saw Catholic Christianity as intrinsic to sense of nation  Inquisition instituted in Spain (1480) by King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile to combat heresy in joint kingdom  1484 – people committing heresy and witchcraft especially prosecuted and persecuted  Bubbling cauldron of nascent nationalism - period when countries of Europe coming together as nation-states for first time - old mediaeval world of feudal monarchs and personal loyalty replaced with loyalty to nation, and along with it came nationalized religion o Official belief in all places was that political unity depended on religious unity.  Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) o Spanish soldier who fought in armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V against French o Conversion experience and decided to be soldier for Christ and Church (1518) o Gathered followers form UofParis and formed Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1534 o Swore 4 vows – poverty, chastity, obedience, and special obedience to Pope o Headed by General, in Rome o Adopted flexible approach to task – try just about anything to achieve goals – primary purpose education  To educate young in still-Catholic countries  To use knowledge and logic to convince Protestants to return to Catholic Church  Began to go to non-Christian countries to teach Christianity o Generally successful – schools became famous even in Protestant countries for high level of education  Returned Poland and Bavaria and southern Netherlands to Catholic Church; supported Irish; maintained few Catholics left in England; sent missionaries to India, Chine, New France, South America, and Japan o Over years, success gained them fearsome reputation in Protestant lands – and even for some Catholics too  Represents aggressive side of reform in Catholic Christianity  Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) o Paternal grandfather was „converso‟ (convert) form Judaism o Entered Carmelite convent, speculation as to whether she became nun to protect family as converts most often sent before inquisition (Carmelites – order of nuns committed to prayer and cloistered) o Eventually initiated reform of order - nuns from rich families lived in great comfort and wealth, wearing ordinary clothes and free to move about as they wished. Means to offer choice other than marriage to women and not for spiritual or religious reasons  Reform of Catholic Church was as much grass-roots affair as anything  Represents spiritual side of reform in Catholic Christianity R ADICAL REFORM  Rejected institutional religion, seeing religion as being essentially inner experience, which needed no controlled, external form or organization - though for practical reasons these did develop  Accepted Reformation concept of sola scriptura in common with Luther and Calvin, but had emotional experience of faith centering around conviction of sin, spiritual regeneration, and conversion experience The Anabaptists  Initially from Thomas Munzer (1489-1525) – Catholic priest in Saxony  Idea of adult baptism which gave radical reform the title „Anabaptist‟, which means re-baptizer, as the earliest followers had already been baptized as infants  Part
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