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HIST 2260 (22)

Unit 9 Summary.docx

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HIST 2260
Norman Smith

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HIST 2260*DE – Unit 9 Summary 1521-1810: T HE COLONIAL ERA Introduction  Where audiencias in Spain simply courts of justice, in colonies they were more powerful, performing legislative and executive functions  Fall of Aztec capital Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) in 1521 which marked true beginning of New Spain – from then on, Spain embarked on period of exploration and conquest  1522 – Cortez became ‘Governor and Captain General of New Spain’ – promptly founded Mexico City on ruins of Tenochtitlán, building European-style colonial capital with rubble left from razed Aztec pyramids, temples and palaces, and with chief Cathedral built over ruins of central Aztec pyramid Vasco de Quiroga & Utopia  Aristocrat who came to New World late in life, in 1531 in his early 60s – trained as lawyer, became priest  Charles V had appointed Vasco de Quiroga as one of the leading judges of the Audiencia  1531-1532, used own money to establish hospital-school on outskirts of capital  Appointed bishop in 1537 over model community among native peoples  Plan to create communities where Amerindians not only receive instruction in religion, but also in arts and crafts, and in fundamentals of self-government o Primitive socialism – each person worked 6 hours/day and contributed on equal basis to common welfare  Skills he implanted in peoples of that region passed down to descendants, who considered among most skilled crafts-persons in Mexico The Viceroyalty of New Spain (NS)  System of government changed again with government in NS now directly under royal control through local official called Viceroy  1535 – Antonio de Mendoza appointed as first of 61 viceroys who were to rule over NS for next 300 years o Served as chief of all military, political and administrative officers o During 15-year rule, dimensions of colonial territories continued to grow, eventually expanding south to Honduras, north to Kansas, and to New Orleans o NS divided into regions  1571 – Spanish Inquisition imported to NS, initially because of fears that many colonial officials were conversos (former Jews converted to Christianity, but whose conversions were suspect), but also to counter possible influx of Protestant ideas  Inquisition not be as harsh as in new world, did keep tight watch on practice of Catholicism in Spanish territories  Council of Trent, which put Catholic Church on war footing as result of losses to rise of Protestantism, included strict regulation of belief within areas still Catholic, as well as promoting Catholicism in Protestant countries  2 main Inquisitions o Roman, and Spanish (harsher because of nature of Spanish culture as nation which just undergone 700 years of war over religion and culture)  Jesuits entered NW  Local economy transformed by introduction of European crops, draft animals and technology, while American products such as tomato and potato travelled to Europe - not to mention silver and gold, which made Spain wealthiest power in Europe and introduced inflation into European economy  Church began to prosper  By end of 18th century, over half of NS’s land and close to 2/3 of money in circulation controlled by Church, which existed in close alliance with aristocratic landowners Eusebio Francisco Kino  Intellectually gifted and university educated man entered Jesuit order  After further training by Jesuits to become teacher, and after living for 3 years in Spain, in 1681, sent to Mexico o Made personal appeal to Viceroy, pleaded for more extensive colonization of northern regions and more missionary activity o Request granted and in 1687, Kino launched missionary career  Mission embodied both spiritual and practical elements  Jesuits entered northern territory in 1590s, replacing Franciscans who weren’t particularly successful as missionaries. Jesuit influence in this region peaked under Kino  Jesuits encouraged the Amerindians to leave their traditional scattered settlements and move to compact population centers  Each male was given plot of land and in return had to work 3 days/week for mission: tending herds of livestock, also belonging to mission; or providing other special services, such as escorting travelers, constructing mission buildings, or defending against any enemies threatening mission  Music formed important activity in traditional culture, and Jesuits convinced mission natives to form choirs for mission churches  Kino’s death followed by period of decline o Fervent desire to maintain economic dominance in area inevitably led into disputes with settlers  Enriching Jesuits, and leading to uprisings which became so frequent and so severe that by middle of 18th century idea of frontier expansion given way to completely defensive philosophy, based on erection of presidios, or fortresses  1767 – Spanish Crown expelled Jesuits from NS, partly because accusations and partly because country become thoroughly Christianized and incorporated into European-style church based on dioceses and parishes o Part of campaign by monarchies of France and Spain to discredit order, as could not be controlled by local monarchies  Entire order of Jesuits suppressed by Papacy under pressure from France, especially in 1773 - not to be restored until 1814 New Spain: A Summary  Colonial New Spain was richest of all of Spain’s overseas territories  Political upheavals in Europe began to shake Spain o Philosophy behind French and American revolutions spread to Americas, acting as catalyst for social and political unrest INDEPENDENCE  Not influence of revolutionary ideology, however, which led to end of NS, but Napoleon’s conquest of Iberian Peninsula,1808  Some bishops and other leading clergymen helped Colonel Agustín de Iturbide, chief revolutionary leader, to unite troops with other rebellious forces in 1820 and convince other forces still loyal to Spain to declare for Independence  Church supported revolution for number of reasons: o Arrival of James Thomsen, agent of Bible Society, in London, which is to say Protestants were apparently taking advantage of chaos o In Spain itself radical anti-Catholic constitution been adopted which was being enforced, taking schools away from church and attacking religious orders o War of independence had initial irony - conservative colony in revolt against liberal mother country  Most influential character in war was Iturbide, who originally fought for Spain, but in 1820 switched sides and helped produce a document which, among other things, proclaimed Roman Catholicism only allowable religion in planned new country o When Iturbide led victorious troops into Mexico City on September 27, 1821, a new era began o For Church, however, it was to prove ironically a sad day. Church buildings were in ruin everywhere o Missionary, educational, and social work, built over 300 years, was practically at standstill o Very shortly after, Iturbide proclaimed himself, with the support of his troops, Emperor of Mexico  Head of Catholic Church in Mexico, Archbishop Fonte, left for Spain in protest, never to return. Not until 1838 was there to be an archbishop resident in Mexico City again The New Republic, 1823-1857  Not only was Church seriously damaged by war against Spain, but so was economy of country - protests broke out all over against imposition of home-grown empire  Army united against Iturbide who, as a result, abdicated and went into exile in 1823  1824 - Mexico wrote first constitution, modeled to some extent on that of the United States. But unlike the United States, where constitution separated Church and State, Article I of Mexican constitution established Catholicism as only religion to be tolerated  Lack of resident archbishop resulted in internal bickering and conflict among priests in main diocese centered on Mexico City - theological unity of diocese and of Mexican Catholic Church began to fall apart as different Catholics, both lay and clerical, adopted different beliefs without this central control and its link, in turn, to Rome  1824-1830 – came various Masonic lodges - Masons were historically anti-Catholic and, in Mexico, worked to remove influence of Church. LT plans to confiscate church properties, exile bishops, suppress religious orders of men and women, remove education from church control, and legally separate Church and State o First attempts failed, but from that time anti-clericalism became factor in Mexican political life and society  Eventually – Liberal Party - opposed involvement of religion in society  1828-1857 - continuous revolution, barracks revolts, bandit raids, and one attempt by Spain to recover its lost colonies  1836 - Texas lost to republic just prior to independence o American Roman Catholics been invited to settle by Spanish government, and after independence in 1821 new government followed same policy, led to Americans flooding in and overwhelming Spanish-speaking population  1835 – rebellion by American immigrants broke out, by 1836, Republic of Texas created o Mexico governed by dictator Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna  1845 – US annexed Texas, brought about war with US resulting in complete military defeat of Mexico The Church and the Liberal Revolution, 1857-1876  Series of laws passed reducing role of Church in Mexican life - where had for a very long time
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