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HIST 2600 (61)

jan 13 and 15 2014.docx

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HIST 2600
Rebecca Beausaert

Week 2, Lecture #1: Nationalism and Immigration 1. competing views of a uniquely Canadian nationalism a. still very divided—english vs. French vs. first nations i. no common history, language, religion or ethnic origin b. 60s/70s—various expressions of nationalism emerging but specific to the three main groups c. ‘canada first’movement i. launched by 5 torontonians devoted to promoting a specific type of nationalism ii. concerned about the lack of a uniquely Canadian set of myths and symbols iii. used canadas ruggedness as its definition; how it fostered a superior race (white, anglo saxon) iv. didn’t take into account French Canadians and first nations d. ultramontanism i. a nationalist movement emerging in quebec ii. product of a resurgence of French-catholic sentiment in quebec iii. ultramontanism—religion took precedence over the state; pope was supreme authority over religious and civil matters iv. favoured elicting politicians who endorsed catholic views on marriage, education, and social order; protestant English Canadians didn’t support ultramontane views 2. the transcontinental and pacific scandal, 1873 a. conservatives won the federal election in 1872 b. political scandal in 1873 c. conservative government accepted campaign money from a large American company that was in the running to help build a transcontinental railway to BC d. Canadians don’t want the americans to have this job—they want to keep the jobs local e. Macdonald publicly proclaims innocence but the damage has already been done f. He announces that the conservative government will be stepping down due to this scandal g. In January 1874, governor general asks the opposition to form the government (liberals) but they need to hold an election h. In 1874 a federal election is held—liberals win 58.3 of the popular vote and form the government with alexander mckenzie as the prime minister i. Liberal party is fractured between French and english 3. liberal government of alexander Mackenzie, 1874-8 a. Mackenzie is not the ideal leader to take over b. Didn’t show the right kind of leadership c. Many members of the liberal party challenge his leadership d. Becomes prime minister at a really bad time e. Canada is entering the economic depression in 1874 i. Trade is declining and federal debt is increasing f. Liberals are able to implement important and impressive reform measures during their 4 years in power i. Supreme court of Canada is created in 1875 ii. Change election policies and procedures; introduce secret ballot system, eleections being held on same day in all regions, closed taverns on election day to decrease politicians buying votes iii. contested elections became concern of the courts, not politicians iv. extended federal franchise to all non-native males, whether they held property or not v. national military college established (Kingston) to train officers— military sucks at this point vi. dual representation (individual can hold federal and provincial seat simultaneously) vii. hold back on constructing the transcontinental railway g. 1878 time for new federal election; conservatives want back in and use the fact that the liberals didn’t build a railway to their advantage h. macdonald and the conservatives propose a national policy i. Canadians elect macdonald back as prime minister 4. john a macdonalds national policy a. high protective tariffs (if duties on imported goods are increased, this would promote manufacturing in Canada)—goods that are imported are more expensive to import than goods made locally b. completion of a transcontinental railway c. settlement of the west through immigration d. liberals oppose these ideas—don’t like the tariffs and support free trade, don’t believe the government should be allowed to oppose trade restrictions, and think the tariffs only will support central Canada and not the maritimes, western e. railway would help people travel i. macdonald pushes the benefits of building the railway ii. railway would aid british imperialism; instead of going down through southAmerica and coming up, they can just go through Canada iii. help realize the potential of the northwest and a form of nationalism that will help form the country f. plans for the railway begin; money is needed and investors 5. Canadian pacific railway a. Men associated with the bank of montreal b. Can confirm the route now that they have the investors and money c. First spike of the railway is near north bay in Ontario in 1881 and construction heads west d. By 1883, financial difficulty e. More money is needed than originally thought f. Government introduces bill to finance remaining section g. Completed in 1885 on November 7 a ceremonial last spike is driven in by Donald smith in BC h. Costs 63.5 million of public money and 35 million in government loans i. Railway uses 10.4 million hectars of valuable prairie land j. Proud moment for macdonald and government k. Railway is much more convenient for people; its direct, goods can be transported faster and cheaper as well as people l. Postal system benefits m. 1886 daily mail delivery begins in Canada 6. first nations and treaties, 1870-76 a. government is responsible for governing the first nations people that are in the region b. first nations are considered wards of the state and lack the ability to govern themselves c. government views them as a nuisance; below them; dying breed; obstacle to white settlement; reluctant to modernize/change d. government needs to convince the first nations to surrender their land via treaties e. treaty making is not new—a number have been made prior to confederation, talthough smaller in scale f. government was more accommodating at first, and abided by promises made g. however this changes after confederation h. treaties that concern large pieces of land are signed very quickly i. treaties 1 through 5 affect the Ojibwa and Cree peoples in areas including present-day northwestern Ontario, Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan j. treaty 6 affects the Cree in present day central Saskatchewan and alberta k. treaty 7 affects the blackfoot nations and sarcee and stoneys in southern alberta l. the first nations see the treaties as their only hope of survival; they know the white settlers are coming for their land but they seek protection but striking a mutual pact of peace between themselves and the government m. the treaties make the first nations surrender their lands to the government with certain concessions like the right to hunting fish, etc n. treaty process is complicated—involves a lot of miscommunication and misinterpretation o. some historians argue the first nations were duped into signing over their lands and others argue the first nations knew exactly what they were doing 7. indian act a. used as the governments tool for handling ,controlling, and assimilating first nations people b. legally defines first nations as special wards of the crown (without citizenship privileges) c. gives government power to decide definition of Indian d. creates one universal governing structure for all first nations in Canada e. over the next 100 years, the indian act would be amended over 100 times f. creation of the reserve system g. these groups of people who for thousands of years lived on these lands have been pushed off, families divided, traditional ways of life have been decimated h. government begins aggressive policy of assimilation, trying to make the first nations into white people i. makes them adopt white modes of education, pursue agriculture, white ways of dress ,etc j. legacy of macdonald government k. January 11 is john a macdonalds bday, 199 in 2014 Week 2 Part 2 th 8. why the push for immigration in the later 19 century a. between 1882-1914 huge immigration boom i. 4 million immigrants come to Canada, mostly after 1900 b. macdonald national policy was
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