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HIST 2600 (61)

march 17 2014

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HIST 2600
Rebecca Beausaert

Canada: in the world and at home 1946-1963 1. demobilization a. Canadian armed forces strength i. 1945: 478000 troops ii. 1946: 31000 troops b. focused on the economy c. major economic initiatives i. provide credit ii. lower tariffs d. results i. 1.25 billion loan to great Britain ii. GATT (1948) iii. Aborted us free trade agreement e. In 1946, the world and Canada with it don’t see the USSR as an immediately danger to Canada f. Government took two approaches to addressing the impending economic crisis i. Extended credit in Canadian dollars to a number of nations (great Britain [1.25 billion loan]) to encourage spending on Canadian goods 1. Discontent in the prairies ii. Focus on reducing tariffs 1. Canada has a preferential, imperial agreement with Britain 2. Focus is on USAwhich is in a much better place to help Canada g. Through a series of negotiations there is a general agreement on tariffs (GATT) 1. Framework on reducing tariffs worldwide h. Big economic powers have an ability to go at it alone, but it is hard for Canada since we are small 2. Red stirrings and dividing the world and uniting the west a. Gouzenko affair i. Clerk at the russian embassy, led a small network of spys to steal nuclear secrets b. Canada now has to take a side in the cold war as all the info hit th media c. Never doubt that Canada was going to side with the western powers d. Gray lectures i. Louis st Laurent ‘foundations of Canadian policy in world affairs’ e. 2 thirds of Canadians said that Canadians were doing all they could in 1947, we were very apathetic f. Anew wave of foeign policy leaders, emergence of key figures i. Escott reid, hume wrong, lester b pearson g. NATO i. North atlantic treaty signed april 1940 h. Kellock-taschereau commission (1946) i. Key thing to happen is the view that Canada and its allies need to take a more coordinated approach to collective defense 3. The welfare state a. Impetus i. Growth of government during WWII ii. Residual vulnerability from depression and WWII iii. External pressure iv. Movement to expand the welfare state v. Pressure on the government to do things vi. Substantial expansion b. Measures introduced i. National health program (1948); provided funding for healthcare and hygiene programs ii. Old age security (1951) iii. Unemployment insurance enhancements; include seasonal workers and those previously not covered by the initiative iv. Unemployment assistance act (1956) v. Hospital insurance and diagnostic services act 1957 c. The home economy i. Canada was far less prosperous than the USA ii. Ni the late 40s and early 50s most Canadians consume cautiously iii. Left behind: rural and atlantic Canada (wages were about 40% lower than the rest of Canada) and minorities 4. First nations a. Re-evaluating the place of first nations i. Political activism ii. Sgift in race theory iii. Sustained contact in remote areas iv. Media exposure v. Anti colonialism b. Indian act 1951 i. Still assimilationist in tone ii. Band councils have more authority iii. Women get vote in band elections iv. Cultural bans lifted v. Livestock sale and slaughter 5. Leadership change a. 1948 king is set to retire after 22 years in office b. st. Laurent chosen by liberal party as replacement c. smooth transition d. third strongest majority ever e. easily elected, uncle Louis, grandpa everyone wanted 6. trouble in asia a. chinese revolution (1949) b. break up of india; india, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma 7. enter foreign aid a. Colombo plan (1950) i. Intended to last for 6 years ii. Focus on infrastructure and skills development iii. Limited political support in Canada iv. Canada initially controbites 25 million b. Lester b pearson goes to the conference in Colombo and leaves a strong advocate and turns around the cabinet c. Focused on countries that were formerly british and doesn’t support china 8. Korean war a. Failure of UNTCOK b. Korean invasion (
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